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Wednesday, January 18, 2012

The History of the Bible - Apocryphal Gospels - tampering


What is the Bible? It's actually the meeting of several books which were the rule of faith of the early Christians and the Jews. In truth, the first Christians, those who graduated after Jesus Christ, and which existed between the year zero, year of birth of Jesus Christ and the year 325 after Christ had not a Bible.They had a set of books written by different writers and they were the gospels.

The Gospels in the Bible that are part of a much larger set of gospels. Were selected in the first council of the Catholic Church, the Council of Nicaea convened by the first Catholic emperor Constantine adopted Christianity, a doctrine that was propagated in the Roman world dominated by the year 300dc. It was actually an action that was more political than bottom truly devotional. Until then, the Christians were persecuted and thrown to the lions.

What actually were the plots and events surrounding these facts, and which authority had the Catholic Church to proclaim the chosen books of the Bible as they really were true?

The early Christians or those who were persecuted were not compiled the Bible by Catholics. But had a much larger set that still is in the basement of the Vatican, but copies of which circulate throughout the world.Contain narratives that show episodes of the childhood of Jesus, and prophetic and apocalyptic visions, as well as the Old Testament that narrate episodes from the life of the Jews.

St. Jerome 
Gathered and compiled the first Bible
Bible (theGreek βίβλια, plural of βίβλιον, transl.biblion, "roll" or "book") is thereligious textof the centralChristian and being the biggest seller of all time with more than 6 billion copies sold throughout the world, seven times the number of copies of the 2nd Set of 21 List of Best Selling Books.
It was St. Jerome , translator of the Vulgate Latin , which first came to all the books of the Old Testament and New Testament of "Divine Library."The Bible is a collection of books cataloged, regarded as divinely inspired by the three great religions of the sons of Abraham (as well as Christianity and Judaism, Islam ). They are therefore known as "religions of the Book." It is synonymous with "Holy Scriptures" and "Word of God. "
The various Christian churches have some differences in their canons sacred. Even Protestants among Protestants. Some Protestant Christian churches have 39 books in the Old Testament canon as part of their Bibles, and other, 46 livros.As Protestant Bibles have 46 books are the churches that accept the Apocrypha as inspired. The Catholic Church has 46 books in the Old Testament as part of its biblical canon (the books of Tobit , Judith ,Wisdom , Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach), Baruch , I Maccabees and II Maccabees , and some passages in the books of Esther and Daniel ) . These texts are called deuterocanonical (or "second canon") by the Catholic Church.
Importantly, a large portion of Jews, about four-fifths, have the seven books in his canon, unlike the self-righteous minority palestinence. And it was this minority that some Protestants of the twentieth century, finally rectified its canon, with the appearances of the first Bible Societies .
The Orthodox Christian churches , and other Eastern churches, accept, and all those already mentioned, two books of Esdras, two of the Maccabees, the Prayer of Manasseh , and a few chapters later in the book of Psalms (in a Bibles of the churches of traditional Greek , Coptic , Slavicand Byzantine , and five Bibles in church traditionSyriac ).
The Protestant Christian churches, considered deuterocanonical texts as apocryphal , but recognize them as fruitful reading and moralizing, beyond the historical value of the books of theMaccabees and others have literally as canonical.Several important and the Protestant Bibles, as theKing James Bible and the Bible Spanish Reina-Valera , in their editions contain the Apocrypha .
As for the New Testament, Christians are unanimous in accepting the New Testament writings with his 27.



LANGUAGE AND THE "Latin Vulgate"
We used three different languages ​​in the writing of several books of the Bible:Hebrew , the Greek and Aramaic . Was written in Hebrew consonantal entireOld Testament , except the books called Apocrypha , and some chapters of the book of Daniel , which were written in Aramaic. In common Greek, besides those already mentioned deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament, were written almost all the books of the New Testament. According to Christian tradition, the Gospel of Matthew would have been first written in Hebrew, as the way of writing aimed to reach the Jews.

The Hebrew Bible is not used in quite the same. We found some books in the classical Hebrew (eg. Books of Samuel and Kings ), in others a more rudimentary Hebrew and in still others, particularly the last to be written, produced a Hebrew, with new terms and the surrounding influence of other languages. The Greek New Testament, despite differences in style between the books, corresponds to the Greek called Koine (ie, the Greek "common" or "vulgar" as opposed to the classical Greek), the second most spoken language in the Roman Empire .

Pope Damasus II
Council of Trent
The first Latin translation of the Bible was the Vetus Latina , based on theSeptuagint , and therefore not included in the books containing the Hebrew Bible. The Pope Damasus I mount the first list of books of the Bible, theCouncil of Rome in 382 AD He asked St. Jerome to produce a reliable and consistent text by translating the original texts in Greek and Hebrew into Latin. This translation became known as the Bible Latin Vulgate , before that there was great confusion and disagreement over biblical texts to be accepted by Christians, and in 1546 , the Council of Trent declared it as the only authentic and official Bible in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church .
Books not included in the Bible   Books were written by men, hence can not be considered as the word of God, but they are the living testimony of important events that deserve study and reflection.

The Bible began to be formed by the Roman Catholic Church in the first council of Nicaea, which was the first council of the Catholic Church so formed.

The Council of Nicea 

Emperor Constantine
325 AD - is held the Council of Nicea, now Iznik town, province of Anatolia (the name is usually given to the ancient Asia Minor), in Asiatic Turkey.Turkey is a Eurasian country, consisting of a small part of Europe, Thrace, and much of Asia, Anatolia.This was the first Ecumenical Council of the Church, convened by Emperor Flavius ​​Valerius Constantinus (285-337 AD), son of Constantius I. When his father died in 306, Constantine was able to exercise supreme authority in Britain, Gaul (now France) and Spain.Gradually, it was taking control of the entire Roman Empire.

Since Lucius Domitius Aurelian (270-275 AD), the emperors had abandoned religious unity, with the resignation of Aurelian to their "divine rights" in 274.But Constantine, who was sagacious statesman, reversed the policy in force, passing by, the persecution of Christians, the promotion of Christianity, seeing the opportunity to rehabilitate through the Church, the religious unity of his empire. However, throughout his rule, did not give up their status as high priest of the pagan cult "Sol Invictus". It had a rudimentary knowledge of Christian doctrine and intervention in religious matters aimed at first, to strengthen the monarchy of his government.



Emperor Diocletian 
Persecutor of Christians
In fact, Constantine noted the courage and determination of the Christian martyrs during the persecution initiated by Diocletian in 303. Did you know that although they were minority (10% of the population of the empire), Christians were concentrated in large urban centers, especially in enemy territory. It was a stroke of genius, the strategic point of view, making Christianity the official religion of the Empire: Taking the Christians under their protection, established in division opponent. In 325, as the sovereign only, convened more than 300 bishops at the Council of Nicea.Constantine sought to provide a standard doctrine of the Church, because the divisions within the new religion was born, threatened his authority and dominion. It was therefore necessary to give Council a new structure to its powers.



ARIUS 
Defender of the thesis 
Jesus was a created being 
and not divine.
And the turning point of the doctrine of the Trinity occurred in this council. Three hundred bishops meet to decide whether Christ was a created being (the doctrine of Arius) or not created, but equal and eternal as God His Father (doctrine of Athanasius).The church ultimately rejected the idea of Aryan Jesus was the first and most noble creature of God, and said that he was the same "substance" or "essence" (ie, the same existing entity) So the Father, according to completion of this Council, there is only one God, not two, the distance between Father and Son is within the divine unity, and the Son is God in the sense that the Father is. Saying that the Son and the Father are "one substance", and that the Son is "begotten" ("only begotten or begotten", John 1. 14.18 3. 16.18, and notes to the text of the NIV) but "not done", the Nicene Creed, establishes the divinity of man from Galilee, although this conclusion was not unanimous. The bishops who disagreed were simply persecuted and exiled.



Athanasius 
Defender of the thesis 
deification of Jesus
With the rise to power of the Church, doctrinal disputes have to be treated as matters of state.And in the Arian controversy, put up a big obstacle to the realization of the idea of a universal empire of Constantine should be reached with the uniformity of divine worship.



The council was formally opened on May 20, the central structure of the imperial palace, occupying themselves with Aryan preparatory discussions on the issue, in which Arius, with some followers, especially Eusebius of Nicomedia, Theognis of Nice, and Maris, of Chalcedon, seem to have been the main leaders. As usual, the Eastern bishops were in the majority. In the first line of influence hierarchical three archbishops were: Alexander of Alexandria, Eustathius of Antioch, Macarius of Jerusalem, and Eusebius of Nicomedia and Eusebius of Caesarea. Among the bishops were Stratofilus, bishop of Pitiunt (Bichvinta, kingdom of Egrisi). The West sent no more than five representatives in the relative proportion of the provinces: Marcus of Calabria (Italy), Cecilian of Carthage (Africa), Hosius of Cordoba (Spain); Nicasius, Dijon (France) and Domnus of Stridon (Province of the Danube). Only 318 bishops attended, which was equivalent to only about 18% of all the bishops of the Empire. Of the 318, few of the western part of the Constantine area, making the vote, at least, tendentious. Thus, with the majority and the Eastern bishops to their favor, Constantine approve easily, whatever was in their interest.



The regular sessions, however, began only with the arrival of the Emperor.After Constantine explicitly ordered the course of negotiations, he entrusted the control of the proceedings of a committee appointed by him, consisting of probably the most prominent participants in this body. The Emperor manipulated, pressured and threatened the participants to ensure that the council would vote on what he believed, and not at some consensus that the bishops came. Two of the bishops who voted in favor of Arius were exiled and the writings of Arius were destroyed. Constantine decreed that anyone who was caught with documents Aryanists would be subject to the death penalty.



But the Assembly's decision was not unanimous, and the influence of the emperor was clearly evident when several bishops were expelled from Egypt because of his opposition to the creed. In fact, the decisions of Nicaea were the result of a minority. Were misunderstood and even rejected by many who were not supporters of Arius. Subsequently, 90 other bishops drew up the creed (the "Creed of the Dedication") in, 341, to replace the Nicene. (...) And in 357 a council in Smyrna has adopted a truly Aryan creed.



Therefore, the guidelines for Constantine were decisive at this stage that the Council promulgated the Nicene Creed, or the divinity of Christ, on 19 June 325. And with that came the subsequent institution of the Holy Trinity and the most discussed, yet the institution of the Holy Spirit, which resulted in cuts and i nterpolações of sacred texts, to adapt the Bible to the decisions of the Council and other troubled, as the of Constantinople in 38L, whose goal was to confirm the decisions of that.



The concept of the Trinity, so dark, so incomprehensible, offered great advantage to the claims of the Church. Allowed him to make Jesus Christ a God. Gave to Jesus, what she calls its founder, prestige, authority, whose splendor falls on the Catholic Church itself and ensured his power, just as was planned by Constantine. This strategy reveals the secret of Trinity adoption by the council of Nicea.



The theologians justified this strange doctrine of the deification of Jesus by placing the following expression in the Creed about Jesus Christ: "Begotten, not made." But if it was generated, Christ did not exist before being generated by the Father Soon, he is not God, for God is eternal! Reflecting the times and the Nicene Creed made ​​no reference to the teachings of Jesus. It lacked an "I believe in his teachings," perhaps because they were not so interested in the religion now a member of the Roman Imperial power.



Even with the adoption of the Nicene Creed, the problems continued and in a few years, the Arian faction began to regain control. They became so powerful that Constantine the rehabilitated group and denounced Athanasius. Arius and the bishops who supported him back from exile. Now, is that Athanasius was banished. When Constantine died (after being baptized by an Arian bishop), his son restored the philosophy and his Arian bishops and condemned the group of Athanasius.



Emperor Theodosius
In subsequent years, the political dispute continued until the Aryans abused their power and were overcome. The controversial political / religious violence and death caused widespread. In 381 AD, Emperor Theodosius (a Trinitarian) called a council at Constantinople. Only Trinitarian bishops were invited to participate. One hundred and fifty bishops attended and voted for a change in the Nicene Creed to include the Holy Spirit as part of divinity. The doctrine of the Trinity was now official for the Church and also for the state. With the unique participation of the bishops cited the Trinity was imposed on all "further theological truth of the church." And the bishops, who did not support this thesis, were expelled from the Church and excommunicated.



By the ninth century, the creed was already established in Spain, France and Germany. It had taken centuries since the time of Christ to the doctrine of the Trinity "pick up". Government policy and the Church were the reasons behind the Trinity to exist and become the official doctrine of the Church. As can be seen, the Trinitarian doctrine resulted from the mixture of fraud, politics, and a pagan emperor warring factions that have caused deaths and bloodshed.



The Christian churches today say that Constantine was the first Christian Emperor, but his "Christianity" had only a political motivation. It is highly doubtful that he actually accepted the Christian doctrine. He has killed one of his sons, and a nephew, his brother and possibly one of his wives. He kept his title of high priest of a pagan religion until the end of his life and was only baptized on his deathbed.




NOTE: In 313 AD, with the breakthrough of the "religion of the Carpenter," the Emperor Constantine the Great in trouble with the Roman people and needed a new religion to control the masses. Taking advantage of the wide spread of Christianity, took possession of Religion and modified it according to their interests. Some years later, in 325 AD at the Council of Nicea, is founded, officially, the Catholic Church ...



It should be noted that, "Church" at the time of Jesus, was not the "church" we mean today, because if we read the Gospels we see an end to the other that the word "Church" in the sense that we give today, even is mentioned in them except for approach and only three times in two verses in the Gospel of Matthew (Mt 16, 18 and Matthew 18, 17), since the original Greek word used by Matthew, ekklesia, means simply 'assembly called "this If the community of followers of the doctrine of Jesus, or his meeting in a place, usually in private homes where they read the cards and messages of the apostles. We know by the testimony of other New Testament texts, as the Gospels are silent about it. See, for example, the Epistle to the Romans (16, 5) where Paul cites the grouping (ekklesia), which met at the residence of a couple of weavers, Aquila and Priscilla, or the Epistle to Philemon (1, 2) where the even Paul welcomes the ekklesia that met in Philemon's house said, in one case, as we read in the Epistle of James (2, 2), the Christian congregation is called "synagogue." None of this has to do, therefore, with the imposing Catholic Church as an institution formally structured and formalized, especially since the Council of Nicaea, presided over by Emperor Constantine, more than 300 years after Christ's death.


Bishop Irenaeus

REMOVED THE BOOKS OF HOLY SCRIPTURE




The four canonical gospels, which are believed to have been inspired by the Holy Spirit, were not accepted as such in the early Church. The bishop of Lyon, Irenaeus explains the picturesque criteria used in choosing the four gospels (notethe weakness of the arguments ...):"The gospel is the pillar of the Church, the Church is scattered throughout the world, the world has four regions, and should, therefore, that there are also four gospels. The gospel is the divine breath of the wind of life for men, and therefore, as there are four cardinal winds, hence the need for four gospels. (...) The Word Creator of the universe reigns and shines upon the cherubim, the cherubim have four ways, this is why the Word in the treated to the four Gospels. "




Versions of how was the separation between the canonical and apocryphal gospels, during the Council of Nicea in 325 AD, are also unique. One version says that while the bishops in prayer, inspired by the Gospels were deposited on the altar itself! ... Another version says that the Gospels were all placed at the altar, and the Apocrypha fell to the ground ... A third version says that the Holy Spirit entered the premises of the Council as a dove through a window (without breaking it), and was landing on the right shoulder of each bishop, whispering in their ears the Gospels inspired ...


The Bible as a whole, moreover, had not always the way it is now known. Several texts, called today the "apocryphal", previously included in the Bible, in contrast to the canonical recognition by the Church.


According to the dictionary, the word Apocrypha means:

"Among Catholics, the Apocryphal writings were sacred subjects were not included by the church in the Canon of Scripture authentic and divinely inspired." (Emphasis added).

Book Maria Helena de Oliveira

Note - Note that the very Aurelio Dictionary records the expression: "divinely inspired".Why is it?



Maria Helena de Oliveira Tricca, compiler of the work Apocrypha, The Outlaws of the Bible, says: "Many so-called apocryphal texts have been part of the Bible, but over successive councils were eventually eliminated. There were those who later came to be benefited by a reconsideration and makes sharing the Bible. Examples: The Book of Wisdom, attributed to Solomon, Ecclesiasticus or Sirach, the Odes of Solomon, the Book of Tobit or Tobias, the Book of Maccabees and more. Most of them were definitely out, as the famous Book of Enoch, the Book of Isaiah and the Ascension Books III and IV of the Maccabees. "


We ask: What were the reasons for excluding these books of Holy Scripture forever? Does the "Fathers" of the time they were superior to the Apostles and martyrs who experienced the events closely related to Christ and to Judaism? Power that these same "holy fathers" are lined to the point of claiming that some Gospel texts did not represent the teachings and the Word of God?


Seeking further clarification, we suggest, for those wishing to delve into the subject, a reading of books that address this issue in more detail, which can be found on the Site Submarine:
Part 1 and Part 2



There are over 60 apocryphal gospels, such as Thomas, Peter, Philip, James, of the Jews, the Nazarenes, the Twelve, the Seventy, etc..A bishop who was chosen in the fourth century, the 27th of the current New Testament texts. In relation to the Old Testament, the problem was only finally resolved in the year 1546, during the Council of Trent. After much controversy, heated debates and even physical struggle between the participants, the council decreed that the first and second books of Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh would come out of the Bible. On the other hand, some apocryphal texts were incorporated into the canonical books, as the book of Judith (plus Esther), books and the Dragon Song of the Three Holy Children (Daniel added in) and the book of Baruch (containing the Epistle of Jeremiah) .


Catholics were not unanimous about the divine inspiration in these books. At the Council of Trent was wrestling when this matter was handled. Lorraine Boetner (in Roman Catholicism) cites the following: "Pope Gregory the Great declared the first Maccabees, an apocryphal book, is not canonical. Cardinal Ximenes, in his polyglot Bible, just before the Council of Trent, excludes Apocrypha and his work was approved by Pope Leo X. Do these popes were wrong? If they were right, the decision of the Council of Trent was wrong. If they were wrong, where is the infallibility of the pope as a teacher of doctrine? "


At the beginning of Christianity, the Gospels were in number 315, was subsequently reduced to 4, the Council of Nicaea. This number indicates perfectly the various forms of local interpretation of the religious beliefs of the Mediterranean coast, about the messianic idea launched by the Jewish priests. Undoubtedly, this fact should have led Irenaeus to write the following: "There are only four Gospels, one more or one less, and only light-minded people, ignorant and insolent walking is distorting the truth." He said this even before the events reported above and were well known.


There was then Naziazenos of the Gospels, the Jews, the Egyptians, the Ebionism, to Peter, Barnabas and others, 03 of which were burned, leaving only the 4 "drawn" and formalized at the Council of Nicea.


Celsus, Roman scholar, a contemporary of Irenaeus, between 170 and 180 AD, said: "Some faithful first altered the text of the Gospels, three, four or more times, just to be able to subtract them refutations."


It required a careful screening of all of them, in order to remove the differences are more pronounced, and adopted that of Hesychius of Alexandria, and Pamphilus of Caesarea and of Lucian, of Antioch.Even so, only in 3500 by Luciano passages are worded differently.The result is that even the Fathers of the Church, the Gospels are not reliable sources and original.


The Gospels that bring the word "second", which in Greek is "cata", did not come directly from the would-be evangelists.


The questionable origin of the Gospels, explains why the older documents do not refer to Jesus' earthly life.


It is reasonable to assume that a "divine word" can be changed so easily and with impunity by human hands. Let it be the responsibility of being judged good or bad judges and ecclesiastical dignitaries.

How will we see in the article "What is the importance of the Apocrypha?", There are some books written before or shortly after Christ had intended to appear as Scripture.

But by the Magisterium of the Church of the Holy Spirit and assistance, these spurious books were definitely removed, leaving only the biblical canon we hold today. For this reason, many have disappeared, others survived in one or another community
old, or even in translations, fragments or quotations.

The following is an exhaustive list of apocryphal books of the Old and New Testament, which, though long, probably does not exhaust all the books written or existing, however, and shows the number of books written with the intention of "complete" the Bible.

Also included at the end, the manuscripts found at Qumran, the caves of the Dead Sea, which were written or maintained by a community that lived in the desert separated from religious groups in Palestine of Jesus' (Sadducees, Pharisees, Samaritans, etc.). .This group, called the Essenes, as we see, considered the Old Testament as Scripture (including the Apocrypha), but had the following characteristic are other "holy books". 

So we have the following as apocryphal works: 

OLD TESTAMENT

1. Apocalypse of Adam
2. Apocalypse of Baruch
3. Apocalypse of Moses
4. Apocalypse of Shadrach
5. The Three Steles of Seth
6. Ascension of Isaiah
7. Assumption of Moses
8. Cave of Treasures
9. Epistle of Aristeas
10. Book of Jubilees
11. Martyrdom of Isaiah
12. Sibylline Oracles
13. Prayer of Manasseh
14. First Book of Adam and Eve
15. First Book of Enoch
16. First Book of Esdras
17. Fourth Book of Maccabees
18. Revelation of Ezra
19. Psalm 151
20. Psalms of Solomon (or Odes of Solomon)
21. Second Book of Adam and Eve
22. Second Book of Enoch (or Book of the Secrets of Enoch)
23. Second Book of Esdras (or Fourth Book of Ezra)
24. Second Treatise of the Great Seth
25. Third Book of Maccabees
26. Testament of Abraham
27. Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs
28. Life of Adam and Eve

NEW TESTAMENT

1. The Hypostasis of the Archons
2. (Saddle Extra Gospels)
3. (Staples of various origins)
4. Revelation of the Virgin
5. Revelation of John the Theologian
6. Apocalypse of Paul
7. Apocalypse of Peter
8. Apocalypse of Thomas
9. Acts of Andrew
10. Acts of Andrew and Matthew
11. Acts of Barnabas
12. Acts of Philip
13. Acts of John
14. Acts of John the Theologian
15. Acts of Paul
16. Acts of Paul and Thecla
17. Acts of Peter
18. Acts of Peter and Andrew
19. Acts of Peter and Paul
20. Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles
21. Acts of Thaddeus
22. Acts of Thomas
23. Consummation of Thomas
24. Correspondence between Paul and Seneca
25. Declaration of Joseph of Arimathea
26. Descent of Christ into Hell
27. Speaking Sunday
28. Sayings of Jesus to King Abgar
29. Teachings of Silvanus
30. Teachings of the Apostle [T] adeu
31. Teachings of the Apostles
32. Epistle to the Laodiceans
33. Letter of Herod to Pontius Pilate
34. Epistle of Jesus to King Abgar (2 versions)
35. Epistle of Peter to Philip
36. Epistle of Pontius Pilate to Herod
37. Epistle of Pontius Pilate to the Emperor
38. Epistle of Pontius Pilate to Tiberius
39. Epistle to King Abgar to Jesus
40. Epistle of the Apostles
41. Eugnostos the Blessed
42. Apocryphal Gospel of John
43. Apocryphal Gospel of James
44. Arabic Gospel of Infancy
45. Armenian Gospel of Infancy (fragments)
46. Gospel of Truth
47. Gospel of Bartholomew
48. Gospel of Philip
49. Gospel of Marcion
50. Gospel of Mary Magdalene (or Gospel of Mary of Bethany)
51. Gospel of Matthew (or Matthias Traditions)
52. Gospel of Nicodemus (or Acts of Pilate)
53. Gospel of Peter
54. Take the Gospel of Didymus
55. Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
56. Gospel of Pseudo-Thomas
57. Gospel of the Ebionites (or Gospel of the Twelve Apostles)
58. Gospel of the Egyptians
59. Gospel of the Hebrews
60. Secret Gospel of Mark
61. Exegesis on the Soul
62. Exhibition Valentinian
63. (Fragments conservative evangelicals in Papyrus)
64. (Text Fragments Evangelical Copts)
65. History of Joseph the Carpenter
66. Childhood of the Savior
67. Trial of Pontius Pilate
68. Book of John the Theologian on the Assumption of the Virgin Mary
69. Martyrdom of Andrew
70. Martyrdom of Bartholomew
71. Martyrdom of Matthew
72. Death of Pontius Pilate
73. Nativity of Mary
74. The Thought of Norea
75. The Testimony of Truth
76. The Thunder, Perfect Mind
77. Passage of the Blessed Virgin Mary
78. "Pistre Sophia" (fragments)
79. Prayer of Thanksgiving
80. Prayer of the Apostle Paul
81. First Apocalypse of James
82. Proto-Gospel of James
83. Portrait of Jesus
84. Portrait of the Savior
85. Revelation of Stephen
86. Revelation of Paul
87. Revelation of Peter
88. Wisdom of Jesus Christ
89. Second Apocalypse of James
90. Judgement of Pontius Pilate against Jesus
91. On the Origin of the World
92. Testimony on the Eighth and Ninth
93. Treatise on Resurrection
94. Revenge of the Savior
95. Paul's view

Qumran writings

1. The New Jerusalem (5Q15)
2. The Seductress (4Q184)
3. Messianic Anthology (4Q175)
4. Blessing of Jacob (4QPBl)
5. Blessings (1QSb)
6. Songs of the Sage (4Q510-4Q511)
7. Songs for the Holocaust of the Sabbath (4Q400-4Q407/11Q5-11Q6)
8. Comments on the Law (4Q159/4Q513-4Q514)
9. Comments on Habakkuk (1QpHab)
10. Commentary on Isaiah (4Q161-4Q164)
11. Comments on Micah (1Q14)
12. Comments on Nahum (4Q169)
13. Comments on Hosea (4Q166-4Q167)
14. Comments on the Psalms (4Q171/4Q173)
15. Consolations (4Q176)
16. Ages of Creation (4Q180)
17. Writings of Pseudo-Daniel (4QpsDan/4Q246)
18. Exhortation to Search of Wisdom (4Q185)
19. Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen)
20. Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH)
21. Horoscopes (4Q186/4QMessAr)
22. Lamentations (4Q179/4Q501)
23. Curses from Satan and his supporters (4Q286-4Q287/4Q280-4Q282)
24. Melchizedek, the Celeste Prince (11QMelq)
25. The Triumph of Righteousness (1Q27)
26. Liturgical Prayer (1Q34/1Q34bis)
27. Daily Prayers (4Q503)
28. Prayers for the Holidays (4Q507-4Q509)
29. The wicked and the Saints (4Q181)
30. The Last Days (4Q174)
31. Words of the Heavenly Lights (4Q504)
32. Words of Moses (1q22)
33. Copper Scroll (3Q15)
34. Temple Scroll (11QT)
35. Prayer of Nabonidus (4QprNab)
36. Precept of War (1QM/4QM)
37. Precept of Damascus (CD)
38. Precept of Messianism (1QSa)
39. Community Rule (1QS)
40. Rite of Purification (4Q512)
41. Apocryphal Psalms (11QPsa)
42. Samuel Apocryphon (4Q160)
43. Testament of Amran (4QAm)

OTHER WRITINGS

1. History of Wise Ahic
2. Book of Pseudo-Philo

But because some Gospels and Apocryphal books were considered?

Evangelical position.


Apocrypha: WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
In reality, the senses of the word "apocrypha" reflect the problem that manifests itself in two conceptions of their canonicity. In classical Greek, the word apocrypha means "hidden" or "difficult to understand." Later, he took the sense of "esoteric" or something that only the initiated can understand, not outsiders. At the time of Irenaeus and Jerome (third and fourth centuries), the term apocrypha came to be applied to non-canonical books of the Old Testament, even those who were previously classified as "Pseudepigrapha".Since the era of the Reformation, the word has been used to denote the non-canonical Jewish writings originating in the intertestamental period. The question before us is the following: whether the livroseram hidden in order to be preserved, because his message was profound and spiritual, or because they were spurious and dubious reliability.

Nature and number of the Old Testament Apocrypha


Fifteen books called apocryphal (fourteen to join Epistle of Jeremiah toBaruch, as occurs in Catholic versions of Douai). With the exception of 2 Esdras, these books fill the gap between Malachi and Matthew, and specifically include two or three centuries before Christ.

Meaning of the word canon and Canon.

Canon - (of Semitic origin in the Hebrew language "qaneh" in Ezekiel 40:3, and the Greek "kanon" in Gal 6:16 "), has been translated in our versions in Portuguese as" rule "," norm ".
Literal meaning: stick or measuring instrument.

Figurative meaning: rule or criteria that prove the authenticity and inspirationof the biblical books, List of Holy Writ; Alias ​​of Scripture - as the rule of faith and action invested with divine authority.

Other meanings: Creed formulated (the doctrine of the Church in General) Rules
ecclesiastical (list or set of procedures)

Canon - That is according to the canon. In the 66 books of the Bible
Jewish and Evangelical.
Pseudepigrapha meaning of the word - literally meaning "false writings" - Theapocryphal writings are not necessarily false, but rather non-canonical, but also contain erroneous or heretical teachings.

Differences between the Hebrew, Protestant and Catholic

Basic differences:
1. Hebrew Bible - [the Jewish Bible]
a) Contains only the 39 books of the OT
b) reject the 27 New Testament as inspired, and rejected Christ.
c) Does not accept the Apocrypha included in the Vulgate [Roman Catholic version)

2. Protestant Bible -
a) accepted the 39 books of the Old Testament and also the 27 NT
b) reject the Apocrypha included in the Vulgate, as non-canonical

3. Catholic Bible -
a) Contains the 39 books of the OT and 27 NT
b) Includes in the Vulgate version, the non-canonical or apocryphal books are: Tobit,
Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, 1 and 2 of the Maccabees, chapters six and ten
added verses in the Book of Esther, and two chapters of Daniel. The following lists
of those who were in the Septuagint:

Apocryphal Book of the Septuagint
8 Baruch
Ezra 1 3
9 The Letter of Jeremiah
2 4 Ezra
10 Accrued Daniel
3 Prayer of Azariah
11 The Prayer of Manasseh
4 Tobias
12 1 Maccabees
5 Additions to Esther
13 2 Maccabees
6 The Wisdom of Solomon
14 Judith
7 Ecclesiasticus (also called the Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach)

HOW WERE APPROVED Apocrypha

The Romans adopted the apocrypha April 8, 1546 as a means to combat the Protestant Reformation. At this time the Protestants fought violently Romish doctrine of purgatory, prayer for the dead, salvation by works, etc.. The Romans saw the Apocrypha basis for such doctrines, and appealed to them by passing them as canonical.
There were pros and cons of this within the church itself, but also after. At that time the Jesuits exercised a strong influence on the clergy. Discussions on the Apocrypha motivated attacks of the Dominicans against the Franciscans. The Catholic scholar John L. Mackenzie in his "Bible Dictionary" under the entry, Canon, comments that the Council of Trent there were several "controversies notably burning" on the approval of the Apocrypha. But Cardinal Pallavacini, in his "Ecclesiastical History" states that more clearly in full council, 40 of the 49 bishops present fought wrestling, beards and robes clinging to each other ... It was in this environment "spiritual," that the Apocrypha were approved. The first edition of the Roman Catholic Bible with the Apocrypha was in 1592, with the permission of Pope Clement VIII.

The Protestant reformers published the Bible with the Apocrypha, placing thembetween the Old and New Testaments, not as inspired books, but good for reading historical and literary value. This continued until 1629. The famous English King James Version (KJV) of 1611 has brought them. But after 1629 the reformed churches totally excluded the Apocrypha from their editions of the Bible, and "induced the British and Foreign Bible Society, under pressure from the Scottish Puritanism, declared that they had no Bibles would edit the Apocrypha, and does not cooperate with other companies to include these books in their editions. " Just as well, in order to avoid confusion between the common people, which does not always distinguish between a canonical and apocryphal book and also because of what happened to the Vulgate! Best edit them separately.


There are several reasons why they rejected the Apocrypha. Here are a few:

1. BECAUSE WITH THE BOOK OF MALACHI The biblical canon was over.

After about 435 BC there were no further additions to the canon of the OldTestament. The history of the Jewish people was recorded in other writings, such as the books of the Maccabees, but they were not considered worthy of inclusion in the collection of God's words coming from previous years.

When we turn to Jewish literature outside the Old Testament we see that the belief that the words had ceased divinely authorized from God is demonstrated clearly in various aspects of extra-biblical literature.
-
1 Maccabees (about 100 BC), the author writes about the altar;

"They demolished it, therefore, and laid down their stones on the Hill Address convenient, waiting for a prophet to come and comment about it" (4.45-46 l Mac).

Apparently they did not know anyone who could speak with the authority ofGod as the prophets of the Old Testament had done. The memory of an accredited prophet among the people belonged to the distant past, because the author could speak of a great suffering, "which had not been since the day they appeared no more a prophet in their midst" (9.27 l Mac, 14:41 ).

- Josephus (born c. AD 37/38) explained: "From Artaxerxes to our own day it was written a full story, but it was not deemed worthy of credit equal to the earliest records, due to lack of exact succession of prophets "(Against Apion 1:41) This statement of the greatest Jewish historian of the first Christian century shows that the writings that are now part of the" apocryphal, "but he (and many of his contemporaries) did not consider them worthy" equal credit " the works now known to us as the Old Testament Scriptures. According to the view of Josephus, no "word of God" was added to the Scriptures after about 435 BC
-
Rabbinic literature, reflects a similar belief in his frequent statement that the Holy Spirit (in his role as inspirer of prophecy) had turned away from Israel "After the death of the last prophets, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit moved away of Israel, but they still enjoyed the bath qol "(Babylonian Talmud, Sota repeated Yomah 9b 48b, Sanhedrin 11a, and Midrash Rabbah on the Song of Songs, 8.9.3).
- The Qumran community (Jewish sect that left us the Dead Sea Scrolls) was also expecting a prophet whose words would have the authority to replace any existing regulation (see 1QS 9.11), and other similar statements are found in other parts of the ancient Jewish literature (see 85.3 2Baruc Prayer of Azariah 15). Thus, later written about 435 BC were not generally accepted by the Jewish people as works endowed with equal authority with the rest of Scripture.
-
The New Testament: we have no record of some controversy between Jesus and the Jews about the extent of the canon. It appears that Jesus and his discípu1os on one side and the Jewish or the Jewish people, on the other, were fully agreed that additions to the canon of the Old Testament had ceased after the days of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. This fact is confirmed by Old Testament quotations made ​​by Jesus and the New Testament authors. According to a count, Jesus and the New Testament authors cite more than 295 times, various parts of the Old Testament Scriptures as authoritative word of God, but not once cite a statement extracted from the apocryphal books written or any other authority as if they had divine. The complete absence of reference to other literature as an authoritative word of God and the very frequent references to hundreds of passages in the Old Testament as having divine authority confirms very strongly the fact that the New Testament authors agreed that the established canon of Old Testament, no less, should be accepted as the true word of God.

The counter argument is that Jesus' statement.

Matthew 11: 13 
For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John

Time. John was the time of Jesus, so all the law and the prophets prophesied until the time of John perhaps the last prophet.

2. Because inclusion of the Apocrypha was accidental.

The conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great, led to a new dispersion of Jews throughout the Greco-Macedonian empire. By the year 300 BC, the Jewish colony in Alexandria, Egypt, was a large, strong and fluent. Alexander died, his command was divided into four kingdoms, leaving Egypt under the dynasty of the Ptolemies. The second of them, Ptolemy Philadelphus, was a great lover of literature and concerned with enriching the famous library which his father had founded. To this end, many books have been translated into Greek. Of course, the Holy Scriptures of the Hebrew people were taken into account, is also enjoying the great importance it would have to translate the Bible from their ancestors of Palestine to the Jews whose mother tongue was Greek.

According to a report of Josephus, Eleazar the High Priest of Jerusalem sent at the request of Ptolemy Philadelphus, an embassy of 72 translators to Alexandria, with a valuable manuscript of the Old Testament, which translated the Pentateuch. The translation continued after not being completed until the year 150 before Christ.

This translation, which is known by the name of the Septuagint or LXX (as they were 70, in round numbers, their translators), was accepted by the Jewish Sanhedrin of Alexandria, but there is no such zeal as in Palestine and there due to contemporary trends Hellenistic, Alexandrian translators have made ​​additions and changes, and finally, seven of the Apocrypha were added as an appendix to the Greek text of the Old Testament. Scholars believe they were united with the Bible, be saved along with the rolls of canonical books, and when they started Codices, that is, the financial statements of the entire Bible in one volume, scribes copied certain apocryphal scrolls along with the rolls canonical.

All these books, with the exception of Judith, Sirach, Baruch, and 1 Maccabees, were written in Greek, and most were written many years after the prophet Malachi, the last of the prophets of the Old Dispensation, write the book that bears his name .What can you conclude from this is that when the Septuagint was copied, some noncanonical books for Jews were also copied. This could also be due to ignorance of the true canonical books.

People do not fond to Judaism or even uninterested in distinguishing the canonical books were not canonical equal value for all books, whether they were originally received as sacred by the Jews or not. Even those who had no other Jewish books as canonical certainly copied these books, not consider them sacred, but only to be read. Why not copy books as old and interesting? These books, however, are important to reflect the state of the Jewish people and the character of his intellectual and religious life during various epochs they represent, particularly the so-called intertestamental period (between Malachi and John the Baptist, 400 years) is perhaps for these reasons that the translators joined the Greek text of the Bible, but the Jews of Palestine never accepted in the canon of their sacred books.

3. Testify against the Apocrypha
We will bring you now the testimony of several historical figures which argues against the canonical list "Alexandrian" as shown in the Septuagint, Vulgate and in all versions of existing Catholic Bibles. By the weight of authority that these figures represent, are more than enough evidence and overwhelming against the inclusion of the Apocrypha in the Canon of Scripture. Consider:

JOSEF
Josephus: The earliest reference to the Hebrew canon is the Jewish historian Josephus (37 to 95 BC). In Contra Apionem he writes: "We have tens of thousands of books, of harmony and conflict, but only twenty-two, containing the records of all history, which, as is believed, rightly, are divine." After referring to the five books of Moses, thirteen books of the prophets and other writings (which "includes advice and hymns to God by which men can guide their lives"), he goes on to say:
"From Artaxerxes (the successor of Xerxes) until our days, everything has been registered but has not been considered worthy of much credit as what preceded this time, since the succession of the prophets ceased. But faith we place in our own written is perceived through our conduct, because, despite having gone so long, no one has ever dared to add anything to them or rob them of anything, or change them to anything "

Josephus is clear enough. As Jewish historian, he is a trustworthy source. They were only twenty-two books of the Hebrew canon grouped into three divisions of the Masoretic canon. And since the time of Malachi (Artaxerxes, 464-424) to his time had been nothing added to it. Other books were written, but were not considered canonical, with the divine authority of the twenty-two books mentioned.

ORIGEN
Origin: In the third century AD, Origen (died 254) made ​​a catalog of twenty-two books of the Old Testament has been preserved in the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, VI: 25. It includes the same list of the canon of twenty-two books of Josephus (and the Masoretic Text), including Esther, but none of the canon is declared apocryphal, and explicitly says that the books of Maccabees are "out of [canonical books]."

Tertullian, Origen was approximately contemporary with Tertullian. (160-250 AD) the first of the Latin countries whose works still exist. Declares that the canonical books are twenty-four.

Hilary: Hilary of Poitiers (305-366) mentions them as twenty-two.

Athanasius
Athanasius: Similarly, in 367 AD, the great leader of the church, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, Pascal wrote his letter and listed all the books of our present New Testament canon and the Old Testament except Esther. He also mentioned some of the apocryphal books, such as the Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Sirach, Judith, and Tobias, and said that these "are not actually included in the canon, but appointed by the Fathers to be read by those who have recently joined us and who want instruction in the word of kindness. "

Jerome: Jerome (340-420.dc.) Advocated in Prologus galeatus.The pertinent quote from Prologus galeatus is as follows:
JERONIMO
"This prologue, as the vanguard (principium) with helmet of Scripture can be applied to all the books translated from Hebrew into Latin, so that we can know that everything that is separated from them should be placed among the Apocrypha. Therefore, commonly called the wisdom of Solomon, the book of Jesus son of Sirach, and Judith and Tobias and Pastor (assumed to be the Shepherd of Hermas), not part of the canon. I found the First Book of Maccabees in Hebrew, the As was written in Greek, as testifies its own language. "Jerome, in his preface to the Book of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus mentions having found in Hebrew, but in their states; belief that the wisdom of Solomon would have been originally composed in Greek and not in Hebrew, by demonstrating a typical Hellenistic eloquence. "And so," he continues, "the same way the Church reads Judith and Tobit and Maccabees (in public worship) but not receive them among the canonical Scriptures, so these two books are useful for the edification of the people, but not to establish the doctrines of the Church "). and other snippets, press for the recognition of only twenty-two books contained in the Hebrew, and the relegation of the apocryphal books to a secondary position. Thus, in his commentary of Daniel, cast doubt as to the canonicity of the story of Susannah, based on the fact that the game of words given to Daniel in the narrative, could only be derived from the Greek and not Hebrew (inference: the story was originally composed in Greek). Similarly, in connection with the story of Bel and the Dragon, he declared, "the objection is resolved easily by asserting that this particular story is not included in the Hebrew text of Daniel. But if someone were to prove that belongs to canon, we would be forced to find another answer to this objection. "

MELLITUS: The earliest Christian list of Old Testament books that exists today is that of Melito, bishop of Sardis, who wrote in about 170 AD

"When I reached the East and found myself in the place where these things were made ​​and proclaimed, and knew precisely the books of the Old Testament, I evaluated the facts and sent to you. And these are their names: five books of Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Joshua son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, four books of the Paddles, '0 two books of Chronicles, the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon and his Wisdom, "Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, Job, the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, the Twelve in one book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Ezra. "It is noteworthy that Melito did not mention here any books of the Apocrypha, but includes all our current books of the Old Testament, except Ester. But the Catholic authorities pass over all these testimonies to maintain, in their stubbornness, the Apocrypha!

Heresies of the Apocrypha

One major reason, perhaps the main one, because we evangelicals reject the Apocrypha, is due to the large number of heresies that have such books.

Other than that, there are also fictitious and absurd legends and historical and geographical blunders, what do the Apocrypha be disqualified as the word of God. Below we give a summary of each book and soon after his show serious errors.

SUMMARY:

TOBIAS - (200 BC) - is a story about the goodness of novelistic Tobiel (father of Tobias), and some miracles prepared by the angel Raphael.

It features:
- Justification by works - 4:7-11, 12:8
- Mediation of the Saints - 12:12
- Superstitions - 6:5, 7-9, 19
- Tobias and the angel teaches the tricks lie 5:16 to 19

Judith - (150 BC) is the story of a widow and beautiful heroine who saves his city deceiving an enemy general and decapitating him. Great Heresy is the very story where the end justifies the means.

COUNTERPART
However in several Biblical passages we see similar behavior. One case is the decapitation of the prophets of Baal by Elijah required.

Baruch - (100 AD) - is presented as being written by Baruch, the chronicler of the prophet Jeremiah, in an exhortation to the Jews as the destruction of Jerusalem. However, it is of much later date, when the second destruction of Jerusalem in the post- Christ.
Provides among other things, the intercession for the dead - 3:4. CHURCH - (180 BC) - It is very similar to the book of Proverbs, was not the many heresies:
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The intercession for the dead would indeed be a Heresy?There are historians who claim that such a belief was part of the beliefs of early Christians, and was considered heresy by the Council of Constantinople in 553 years.

The Second Council of Constantinople (which is believed to have been the Fifth Ecumenical Council of the Church) was an ecumenical council in the city of Constantinople (now Istanbul , Turkey ) from May 5 to June 2 in the year 553 . It was convened byRoman Emperor Justinian , with controlling interest of the Eastern bishops, only sixteen Western bishops were present from the Roman provinces ofAfrica and Illyria . The President was the BishopEutyches , patriarch of Constantinople .
The council was the last phase of a long and tumultuous conflict that began with an edict of Justinian in 543 AD against Origen and calledOrigenism . Justinian became convinced that theNestorianism continued to gain strength because of the writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428 AD),Theodoret (d. 457 AD) and Ibas of Edessa (d. 457 AD), and the works of Theodore and of Theodoret were much admired in the church. Because of his initial refusal to condemn the "Three Chapters", thePope Vigilius was detained against his will in Constantinople in 547 AD.
COMMENTS
  1. Chaves José Reis (Catholic)

The pre-existence of the spirit is a theory that preaches the existence of the spirit, before the existence of the body. It was - as we shall see no other chapter - one of the theses defended by the great scholar Origen, and was condemned by the controversial V Ecumenical Council of Constantinople II (553).

If the spirit was created along with the body, this would be the existence of that subject, but what happened is just the opposite, because the spirit is never subordinated to the body.This is quickened by the spirit, without which it lives, yet the spirit lives without the body: "It is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profits nothing" (John 6:63).

How is the spirit created by God, while the body is created directly by man, make the creation of the mind to the creation of the body - and that they want the anti-reincarnation - would want to put the creation of works of man over creation of works of God. In addition, subject the creation to the creation of the spirit of the body would subject the free will of God the free will of man. In other words, God, to create a spirit, a willingness to depend on the couple go to bed to perform an intercourse.

In the event that the spirit was created with the body, how is the creation of a spirit, whose body was aborted, if the purpose of a spirit, for which it was created, is to revive the body? He would be eternally without exerting its function? And we could say that the body would be aborted always the fault of men, for although this happens, there are also miscarriages.

The pre-existence of the spirit in relation to the body quickened by it, is the fundamental basis for the theory of reincarnation, because, to admit the reincarnate of a spirit, we are automatically assuming that he has incarnated before, at least for once.

Is that why she was condemned by the Fifth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople II in 553? It is possible because the pressures of the Emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora, as we shall see in another chapter, were very serious, if not a police matter, as it is today. In fact, we see that in fact he was not convicted of that such a council. (CHAVES, 2002, pp. 139-140). (...) Origen is known as one of the greatest scholars of Christianity of all time.It was practically the creator of our Christian theology. With only 17 became chancellor of the University of Alexandria, the most important intellectual center of the world in the third century. What St. Augustine went to Western theology, Origen went to Eastern theology ; of wisdom and intelligence so brilliant, who won the title of Adamantine.

In addition, he was endowed with a deep mysticism and virtues rare. It's to hurt myself, he said, could better serve the Gospel of Jesus Christ. This undoubtedly was an exaggeration. Not so, perhaps, to the mentality of the time, but, anyway, is an example of his heightened sense of religiosity.

But as always happens with people whose brightness dazzles the eye of the envious, he was the victim of envy by Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria. But Origen, an example of humility and obedience to his ecclesiastical superior, tried to meet all its orders, he wished to be ordained priest. Demetrius, however, denied him ordination.

Then the bishop of Jerusalem, Alexander and Caesar, Teoctist, offered the ordination Origen, which of course he accepted.

With this, Demetrius was angry, trying every means damage the name of Origen before the Church. And unfortunately, Demetrius got his goal.

However, before God, the history of Christianity and even before the Church today, Origen is admired and often cited by scholars and researchers of the Bible, philosophy and theology.

Although he had some of his ideas condemned by the Church, two of them continue to be attacked normally, and not only Catholics but also Protestants.

And the controversial V II Ecumenical Council of Constantinople in 553, which condemned his famous doctrines: the Pre-existence of the Spirit and Apocatastasis (restoration of all things), which humanity today is ripe for them to understand, judge them and accept them. (CHAVES, 2002, pp. 162-163).

Emperor Justinian  
The Fifth Ecumenical Council of Constantinople II (553)

The church had some tumultuous councils. But it seems that the Fourth Council of Constantinople II (553) broke the record with regard to disorder and even disrespect to the bishops and the Pope himself Virgil, Pope of the time.

The emperor Justinian has its merits, including having built in 552, the famous church of Hagia Sophia, the masterpiece of Byzantine art, now a Muslim mosque.

He was a theologian who wanted to know more about theology than the pope. His wife, Empress Theodora, was a courtesan (prostitute) and meddling in the affairs of the government of her husband, and even in theology.

Some authors who have, for she was a prostitute, it was a great pride by their former colleagues. She was, in turn, a great revolt against the fact of his former colleagues decanting get such an honor, that, Theodora, was constituted in shame.

To end this story, sent to eliminate all the prostitutes in the region of Constantinople - about five hundred.

As the people at that time was reincarnation, mostly Christian, began to call her a killer, and that it should be murdered, in future lives, five hundred times, it was karma for sending murdering his former colleagues prostitutes.

Woman of the people, a prostitute, comedian, Theodora - who was born around the year 500 - became Empress by the power of his charm and his intelligence and has established itself as one of the most bizarre in history.


The truth is that Theodora came to hate the doctrine of reincarnation. As rules the roost among the world through her ​​husband, decided to go a persecution, relentlessly against this doctrine, and against his biggest supporter among Christians, Origen, whose fame as sage was proud of the followers of Christianity, although he had lived for nearly three centuries before.

As the doctrine of reincarnation presupposes the prior existence of the spirit, Justinian and Theodora left, first, to disrupt the pre-existence, what would be automatically de-structuring of reincarnation.

In 543, Justinian issued an edict in exposing and condemning the main ideas of Origen, one of the pre-existence of the soul.

Following the publication of the said edict, Justinian ordered the Patriarch Menas of Constantinople to convene a synod, the bishops asking them to vote in his edict condemning ten anathemas therein and attributed to Origen [The Mystery of the Eternal Return, p.. 127-127, Jean Prieur, Best Seller Publishing, New York, 1996].

The main clause or cursed that interests us is the condemnation of the preexistence of the soul which, in summary, is as follows: "Those who support the mythical belief in the preexistence of the soul and the opinion, therefore strange, your back, let him be accursed" [The Reincarnation and the Law of Karma, pg. 47, William Walker Atikinson, Ed Thought, New York, 1997].

Let's see this clause in full: "If anyone says or argues that human souls pre-existed in the condition of intelligence and powers of saints, who, having in disgust from the contemplation of God, having been corrupted and, thereby, having been cooled in the love of God, they were, therefore, called souls, and for their punishment, dipped in bodies, it is anathema! "[The Mystery of the Eternal Return, p.. 127-127, Jean Prieur, Best Seller Publishing, New York, 1996]. (Si dicit wanted, aut sentit proexistere hominum animas, utpote quae antea minds fuerint et Sanctae, satietatemque cepisse divinae contemplation, and in this conversation deterius; atque ideirco apofixestai id this Cool Charitatis Dei, et inde fixed graeca, id est, the Animas nuncupatas, demissasque corpora torment in this cause: anathema) [Magic and Religion, Dr. Rozier, Publisher Launch, April 1898, translated into French by Papus.Reincarnation, pgs. 89-90, Thought Publishing, New York, 1995].(CHAVES, 2002, pp. 185-187).
The Protestant churches also reject the pre-existence and reincarnation. Based primarily in the anathemas of the Emperor Justinian. Martin Luther did not accept Origen, in part because he disliked the practice of Origen to seek allegories in Scripture. Luther wrote: "In the works of Origen there is a single word about Christ." (PROPHET, 1999, p.213).
COMMENTS FROM THE AUTHOR 
The Bible clearly demonstrated decreased early Christians believed in reincarnation. See for example the following dialogue between Jesus and his disciples. 
Matthew 16
13 - When Jesus came into the parts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that the Son of man? 
14 - And they said: Some John the Baptist, others Elijah, others Jeremiah or one of the prophets. 
15 - He said to them: And who do you say I am? 
16 - And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
As you can see, the disciples claimed that people believed him to be the reincarnation of John the Baptist or Elijah or Jeremiah or one of the prophets that had existed for centuries before Jesus, but were part of the history of the Jewish people.


If such a belief was a heresy, Jesus rebuked them, but did not because he himself repeatedly confirmed that. One is on Mount Tabor. See.


Matthew 17


9 - And they came down the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen from the dead.

10 - And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias who comes first?

11 - And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come and restore all things;

12 - But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and do not know him but did to him whatever they wished. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer.

13 - Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist.
See the second dialogue Jesus has with his disciples, they speak of a prophecy which stated that Elijah would come before Jesus. Elijah lived 800 years before Jesus. It is a clear allusion to the belief in reincarnation. Jesus confirms this prophecy says that in truth and Elijah had already come as prophesied, and the conversation made ​​it clear he was speaking of John the Baptist as John the Baptist had been the reincarnation of Elijah.
Ese is confirmed in another passage of scripture. SEE:


Matthew 11


11 - Verily I say unto you, among those born of women there has not risen anyone greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he.

12 - And from the days of John the Baptist until now, it does violence to the kingdom of heaven, and take it by force.

13 - For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John

14 - And if ye will receive it, this is Elijah who is to come.

15 - Who has ears to hear.

In the words of Jesus, there is the claim that John the Baptist is Elijah who is to come, so Jesus confirms that John the Baptist is the reincarnation of Elijah.

These are not in fact the only clues that exist in the Bible about reincarnation.In fact if you do not see it clearly is because scholars are blind as Jesus said. It has eyes to see.


I am not an expert but I will quote the Bible even more evidence.
Jesus was a friend of sinners because he sees sinners as were patients who needed medical attention. The "FAIR" these did not need medical attention.But there was one category of sinners, that Jesus has changed against them.Were the scribes and Pharisees, as the flame reached them whitewashed tombs, and generation of vipers.



Matthew 21

23 - And he came to the temple, approached him, and was teaching, the chief priests and elders of the people, saying: By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority?

24 - And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I will tell you by what authority I do these things.

25 - The baptism of John, whence was it? From heaven or from men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we say from heaven, he will say: So why not believe him?

26 - And if we say, Of men, we fear the people, for all hold John as a prophet.

27 - And Jesus answering, said: We do not know. He said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.

28 - But what do you think? A man had two sons, and, addressing the first, and said: Son, go work today in my vineyard.

29 - But he answered and said, I do not want. But later he repented and went.

30 - And turning to the second, and said likewise, and he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not.

31 - Which of the two did the will of his father? They said to him: The first. Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go before you enter the kingdom of God.



In this passage Jesus says to the chief priests and elders of the people who inquired in order to intrigue him that they would enter the kingdom of heaven, but the publicans and the harlots who were pagans would also enter into the kingdom of heaven before them only . Curiously, the second that statement of Jesus, everyone would enter the kingdom of heaven, before each other once.How would it be? It would be inexplicable were it not for the theory of reincarnation, since according to this theory, all will be sanctified through successive reincarnations until they reach holiness. Only this way can and is too long. Some take more, some less but all can ever get is sanctification and can enter the kingdom of heaven.


Another passage that has an easy explanation for the vision of reincarnation is one in which Jesus talks about his back.




Luke 21


27 - And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.

28 - Now when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is near.

29 - And he told them a parable: Behold the fig tree and all trees;

30 - When they now shoot forth, ye know yourselves, seeing them, which is already close to the summer.

31 - So likewise ye, when ye see these things happening, know that the kingdom of God is near.

32 - Verily I say unto you this generation shall not pass till all be fulfilled.

33 - Heaven and earth will pass away but my words shall not pass away.

34 - And take heed to yourselves, lest your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of life, and you suddenly come upon that day.

35 - Why will come as a snare on all those who dwell on the face of all the earth.

36 - Watch therefore, at all times, praying, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.
In this passage Jesus talks about his back, coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Says that this generation shall not pass away until all these things be fulfilled. The generation of 2000 years ago has passed, however, that this generation is that Jesus refers to? It is not carnal generation, because Jesus never spoke in relation to material reality but always in relation to spiritual reality, so is the spiritual generation. That generation of that time is the same as the current generation that is here in successive reincarnations.


The greatest proof that the incarnation there is the very incarnation of Jesus.Jesus was a spirit that existed long before the creation of planet Earth, and the birth of a child in the body and grow, demonstrated how the mechanism of the arrival of a spirit world, only in case of a spirit of very high stature. At his death says to the Father. "Into thy hands I commend my spirit", showing that there is a spirit that shuts down the body and returns to the Father


But some will say why Paul states the following:


Hebrews 9
27 - And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the court, 
28 - So Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time without sin, those who eagerly wait for salvation.

WHO WROTE A 'Letter to the Hebrews'?

Assigned to [are] Paul, the Letter to the Hebrews, the 16th book of the New Testament, may not have been written by the Apostle 

The so-called Epistle to the Hebrews is commonly attributed to [are] Paul.However, his style has nothing like Paul's, and even the century. IV the Western Church refused to assign it to the Apostle. 
Its author is unknown, the second Christian generation, and wrote it around the year 80. Nothing indicates that the text is also a letter: missing address and greeting, and the style is impersonal, without any reference to recipients. 
The genre is more of a sermon or homily. 
[...] 
The recipients are a group of readers who find themselves in great danger of rejecting faith in Jesus as the revealer and the bearer of salvation. They find it difficult to accept, both humiliating and painful appearance of the land of Jesus as the suffering they themselves are having to endure because they are Christians and even the disappointment of not seeing made ​​the ultimate salvation. 
[...] 
The writing is of great importance in the general framework of the New Testament, because they present Jesus as one who overcomes the cultural institution of the Old Testament. 
[...] The author of Hebrews shows that [...] the only saving act to obtain once and for all forgiveness is the sacrifice of Jesus, who shed their blood and gave His life for us. 
[...] 
Jesus is therefore the only mediator between God and men. Henceforth, he is the only sanctuary and the priest and the sacrifice he made ​​is, hereafter, the only pleasing to God (Heb 9: 11 - 14). 
Holy Bible, Pastoral Edition, PAULUS Graphics, 1998, p.1545 (with adaptations)

Here are some EVIDENCE


Paul to start one of their stories, he wrote in the letters always began in the following ways: Look at the style of Paul.
1 Corinthians 1 
1 - Paul (called an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God),and Sosthenes our brother, 
2 - The Church of God in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours: 
3 - Grace and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 
4 - I always thank my God for you by the grace of God which was given in Jesus Christ.
2 Corinthians 1
1 - Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, the church of God which is at Corinth, with all the saints who are throughout Achaia. 2 - Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 
3 - Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort; 
4 - What comforts us in all our tribulation, that we can comfort those in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God.
ROMANS 1
1 - Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God.
Galatians 1
1 - Paul, an apostle (not from men nor by man but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead),
Ephesians 1
1 - Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, the saints which are at Ephesus, and faithful in Christ Jesus:
Philippians 1
1 - Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi with the bishops and deacons:
Colossians 1
1 - Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,
1 Thessalonians 1
1 - Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ:Grace and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
2nd Thessalonians

1 - Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ:

And so on, all Paul's letters began with this style of greeting. You can check in all the epistles of Paul and will check the type of initial greeting.


The only letter attributed to Paul and do not get this kind of greeting is HEBREWS. which is as follows.


HEBREWS
1 - In the past God spoke many times and many ways to our fathers by the prophets, we spoke to us in these last days by His Son,


This seems very suspicious. It appears that this Epistle to the Hebrews is not Paul's style which suggests that it is authentic.




(Reference) Mark Leal 
"To whom it may concern" 


The Bible is a wonderful book, however, enigmatic and complex. Very difficult to be understood and interpreted correctly in its entirety. It was written over years and years, generations and generations, for a variety of people. Many of these written texts have been lost over the centuries. Unfortunately not come to us and, until we arrived, they are not really complete or as the originals, because in reality, "no one" has the original old. Been lost over time.Contrary to what common sense might think, what today we call the Bible, and this name means "collection" is nothing more in fact than a collection of texts that have been surveyed, cataloged, and selected tax , without any right to question, as the only true word of God. But what many do not know is that these texts are not complete. 

Were scrambled, added, removed, misunderstood, mistranslated, hidden and manipulated for the most part. I repeat, nobody, nobody, absolutely nobody today has the original Bible. What we have today, in fact, they are copies, prints, copies, prints, copies, prints, copies today ... it is impossible to really know what were the actual words of Jesus. It is impossible today to know what were the actual words of Moses, David, Solomon and many others.What we have today are copies of texts translated from other translated copies. 

When it comes around in the original Bible, in reality we are talking about copies of older manuscripts which in turn have been copies made ​​of the supposed original. The first translation of the ancient Hebrew Bible into Greek was made ​​by 72 scholars from Alexandria in the year 285 BC that took no less than 39 years to complete the translation and that the finished, they still had errors and that took more five years to be reviewed and corrected. Remember that at that time there was no dictionary. 

He summoned them to wise men, learned and relied on them to make their interpretations and corrections according to their knowledge of languages. There were many differences between them and in the end, a majority decided that for granted, taken for granted and was ready. Or sometimes, someone who had a higher power, which would be determined that way, that way, period. 

This was the case, for example, the Emperor Constantine, who was not baptized Christian, never wanted to be, and yet presided over the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD that laid the foundations of Western European Christianity, just as we know it today, even at the time had 72 gospels and by determination of Constantine after the council became accepted only 04, who most of us know today. 

All the Emperor's opponents were killed or persecuted and had to flee. Of the thousand bishops summoned to the council, only three hundred were allowed to vote, those who were illiterate, and that pressure on fleet of Constantine, had to abide by their decisions. But we'll talk about that another time. 

Well, after this laborious work of the Alexandrian scholars the Bible was completed and was finally exposed in the library of Alexandria that was raided, burned and destroyed by the Romans when they conquered the region. The Bible and work so many years it took to be searched, cataloged, translated, was burned by the Romans. 

They lost to all manuscripts. Many of the scholars who participated in the translation were killed and some escaped and spread throughout the world. Much later, when Christianity was already the official religion of the Roman Empire, incubated a wise priest and make a new translation of the Bible into Latin, based on texts studied and cataloged by the Roman church. 

What he did in a spectacular period of just three years.What a group of men took 72 years to accomplish, he performed in only three. His translation also contained numerous errors and tells how he spent the rest of his life studying the sacred texts and making corrections. The name of the sage was known as St. Jerome. 

It is said that before he died he wrote a letter to the pope asking for forgiveness, because I knew it was going to hell for having desecrated the sacred scriptures and the interpretation given to them that you thought should be given at the request of a bishop. 

This translation was called "vulgate" and the version of the Bible is accepted and used in the Catholic Christian world today. Many, many, many centuries later, after Martin Luther, a Catholic monk to break with the Roman church and starts the movement "Protestantism," which in turn gave rise to evangelical churches today, a man named King James made ​​his translation the Bible into Portuguese using multiple texts and sources searched for him. 

At the end of a majestic and exhausting work of 28 years, he finally succeeded in translating the books called the New Testament.When finished translations and revisions, himself, King James, admitted he found more than "two thousand errors." Another reviewer by name Ribeiro dos Santos said he found a much larger number. 

After over 15 years of work he translated the books of the Old Testament called to chapter 41 verse 21 (Ezekiel 41:21) and died on August 6, 1691 leaving his work unfinished. In 1748, fifty-seven years after the death of John Foster, Pastor Jacobus op den Akker back to work and he left five years later, in 1753 the first complete Bible printed in Portuguese. This is the most accepted version of the Bible and adopted in the evangelical world.

Since then the bible has gone through changes and adaptations, all based, as I said earlier, prints, prints, copies, prints.

Well what I'm getting with it? Easy. It was necessary to make this brief overview and then we place ourselves in the letter of Paul to the Hebrews which is the theme of this explanation. But why just the letter of Paul to the Hebrews? Because the Bible is only part where, supposedly, according to some interpretations say that if there is reincarnation.

Paul's letters, rather than you think out there, have not survived intact. In fact, none of them came to us in their original state. I repeat once again, which came to us were a few copies. No one has the original. Been lost over time and yet the few texts that have survived are not complete in its entirety.

Whole verses were lost. Others were added, adapted, manipulated. It is that story, who tells a tale adds a point. As a restorer of paintings, the design places the way he thinks should be the original design, and a restorer of text, put on paper what he thinks should be the text that was old and damaged. 

He restores in accordance with its interpretation of that context.Another thing, these ancient languages ​​in which the Bible was written languages ​​are extremely complex. An example: the Hebrew had no punctuation, like comma, period, paragraph, question mark, exclamation. 

There were no signs of stress, there was tense, the words did not have spaces between them, it was all one thing, there was not even members. And so on.You understand how difficult it is to do a translation of what is already a copy and really know what was the original meaning of that expression?

Not to mention that in the past, reading and writing was the privilege of very few, most of the population and even kings were illiterate. The so-called scribes were often illiterate. 

They were called by other copyists to assist them in this arduous task, since there were no Xerox machines, scanner, typewriter, computer, printing and everything had to be done by hand, letter by letter. The scribe illiterate, poor, had no idea what he was writing, he only learned to draw letters and tried to copy the same, but due to tiredness, laziness, lack of stimulation - most were slaves - ended up jumping or swallowing whole sentences just to finish the job boring. (To get home today is a test: try to write an entire chapter of the Bible by hand and then tell me the result).

Well back to the letters of Paul, today any philologist (a person who is dedicated to the study of languages) knows it is impossible to say with precision whether the letters of Paul are really his, were all written by him. It is known, for example, that many are not actually his. The letter to the Hebrews is one of them. There are numerous indications that attest to this. One of them, we all know that language is a living entity, ie it changes with time and traces the historical context of each era.The language portrays, for example, mode of dress of a people, their way of celebrating, eating habits, customs of the time, his scientific discoveries, its evolution over time. Words such as, homepage, email, Orkut, gmail, hotmail, MSN, PC, e-book, internet and only came into existence after the invention of the computer, right? Before the invention of the computer that was in nineteen forty-five was impossible these words exist, right?That is, they are the result of a discovery, an invention that from a date x, became part of everyday life of a people and that allowed the emergence of a new language specific to that context of the time. What would happen if someone came to you with a text dated eighteen hundred, where there were written words as the above, e-mail, Internet, MSN, etc..? You, of course, that person would say that this text is not supposed to be the year one thousand eight hundred and because it would contain in its interior only words that were invented and used by people a century later! Only after the invention of the computer!

Well, philologists and theologians, scholars of ancient languages ​​and cultures, found that many words that were used in Paul's letters that have survived can not be because Paul's not part of the historical context in which he lived. They are not part of those customs of the time. But they were probably written even centuries after the death of Paul, for someone or "someones" posing as him, to know the "support" that had acquired within the Christian movement.

You do not have to be a philologist, nor a theologian to see what I say. There is a very simple way to find out by itself. Follow my train of thought and find out.

Every artist, painter, sculptor, architect, designer, seamstress, etc.., Has a characteristic that is peculiar. It has a trait, a way to express what is yours, and that enables a researcher, an art critic, for example, identify when a work is said to be its true or false. It is as if the work was there checked, coded fingerprint of the artist that is unique and irreplaceable.

Every writer, who is also an artist, has his personal way of writing. His dash, his way of expressing yourself, your personality, your fingerprint he leaves marked in its literature.Well, Paul had his own style of writing. His way of expressing yourself, your brand, say so registered. If we take all the letters they are said to Paul: Romans, Thessalonians, Philippians, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, etc.. Finally all. They all begin with a greeting and a farewell at the end it was a usual characteristic of Paul, like: "To the brothers of the church such grace and peace from our Lord Jesus Christ" and dismissed the same way. Well, now take precisely the letter to the Hebrews and see if it contains a spoken greeting and the final outcome? I wait.
Get it? Read? It has such a characteristic? It has the greeting?
No, does not it?

And it does not stop it. If you have the opportunity to read a copy of the earliest manuscript concerning this letter from Paul, you will see that it differs greatly in its florid language, the other letters of Paul. It's another language, much different from the way Paul used to write. Every good philologist knows that.Most theologians agree that it is not Paul, but someone wrote that pretending to be him.
It's funny, just the passage that is widely used to reject the theory of reincarnation can not even be a reliable text.
But let's move on.

Say the letter to the Hebrews is Paul and what he wrote there that "since man is born, dies and goes doomsday" and that even so there is no reincarnation, as comrade after he died awaiting trial would end , which for some will only happen in the end times. Now the thing is not necessarily so. If as I mentioned earlier, no one has the original texts, no one really knows if this text Paul is, nobody really knows if the original was written this way, or may have been modified by translation error or even on purpose to discredit the theory of reincarnation! But even if the original was written well, even if the text is of Paul, yet there is no evidence that the interpretation there is no reincarnation.Consider me.

The citizen is born, comes with a mission, an apprenticeship, so to speak. Throughout his life in this existence he is guided by his spiritual guide, his guardian angel, your mentor, you name it, lest you deviate from the path that has to keep his job. This happens through inspirations, dreams, visions, insights, even from the same appearances. Every moment we are told to do good, our conscience accuses us when we make mistakes, punish us, or we are tried, convicted and acquitted several times right here in our current existence. But if you still persist in error and deception, of the disembodied, then go through a so-called "Final Judgement" on the current one there who just goes out. It is then where we will see what will happen to us, we will be reborn yet again on the same planet, we will be according to our merit and level of development to another higher level, or even to a lower. It was Christ himself, who according to the Bible, said, "my father's house has many mansions," John 14:2. What would these addresses? Look at the night sky and think: every star from what you see is a sun, and sun around each of those circulated a multitude of planets. Is there any life in them? Does the Creator in his infinite wisdom put them there just so we stay looking at them?
You may not agree with me, fine. No problem. Doubt, ask questions, seek. Let's not argue about it.
"Seek and ye shall find, ask and you shall receive, knock and the door will be opened unto you."

But to continue with the thesis sentence of the apocryphal books.



justification by works - 3:33,34
- Cruel to slaves - 30 and 33:26, 42:1 and 5
- Encourages the hatred of the Samaritans - 50:27 and 28

Wisdom of Solomon - (40 AD) - Book written with the sole purpose of fighting
against unbelief and idolatry of the Epicureans (Greek philosophy in the Christian era).
It features:
- The body as prison of the soul - 9:15 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)
- Strange doctrine about the origin and destiny of the soul 8:19 ​​and 20 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)
- Salvation by wisdom - 9:19 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)

1 Maccabees - (100 BC) - Describes the story of three brothers
family "Maccabees," that the so-called ínterbíblico period (400 BC AD 3)
struggle against enemies of the Jews for the preservation of his people and land.
This story is a story of courage and faith in Divine Providence. I see no contradiction in her doctrine.
II Maccabees - (100 BC) - There is a continuation of the Maccabees, but an account
parallel, full of legends and miracles of Judas Maccabeus.
It features:
- Prayer for the dead - 12:44 - 46 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)
- Mass for the dead and worship - 12:43 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)
- The author does not judge -15:38-40 inspired; 2:25-27
- Intercession for the saints - 7:28 and 15:14 (THESIS FOR CORRECT VISION reincarnation)

Additions to Daniel:
Chapter 13 - The story of Susannah - this second Daniel save Susanna in a Legend
mock trial based on perjury.

Chapter 14 - Bel and the Dragon - Contains stories about the necessity of idolatry.

Chapter 3:24-90 - the song of the three youths in the furnace.

LEGENDS, errors and heresies

1. Fictional stories, legends and absurd
- Tobias 6:1-4 - "So he went, Tobias, and the dog followed him, and stopped at the first hostel
along the Tigris River. And he went out to wash the feet, and behold, water came out of a monstrous fish
to devour. In his view, Tobias, terrified, cried aloud, saying, Lord,
he introduced himself to me. And the angel said, told him: Take him for gueuras, and pull it to
you. Having done so, pulled him to shore, and began to pound at his feet.

If we consider that such a narrative is a legend, what to think of the history of the fish that swallowed Jonah, having survived in the belly of this animal was later regurgitated alive?

2. S Historical and Geographical Errors

The Apocrypha undermine the doctrine of inerrancy because these books include errors
historical and otherwise. Thus, if the Apocrypha are considered part of
Scriptures, that identifies errors in the Word of God. These books contain errors
historical, geographical and chronological, and obviously heretical doctrines, they
to advise immoral acts (9.1O Judith, 13). The errors of the Apocrypha are
frequently mentioned in works of recognized authority. For example:
The Bible scholar René Paehe DL says: "Except for certain information
interesting historical (especially in 1. Maccabees) and some beautiful thoughts
moral (eg Wisdom of Solomon)

Tobias ... contains certain historical and geographical errors, such as the assumption that
Sennacherib was the son of Shalmaneser (1 .15) instead of Sargon II, and that Nineveh was
taken by Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus (14.15) instead of Nabopolassar and
Cyaxares ... Judith can not be historical because it contains obvious errors ... [In 2
Maccabees] there are also numerous disorders and discrepancies in matters
chronological, and historical figures, which reflect ignorance or confusion ..

HERESIES
3. Teach Magical Arts or Sorcery as a method of exorcism
a) 6.5-9 Tobias - "Then the angel said: Take this fish entrails, and hold, because
these things you will find useful. This done, baked Tobias part of his flesh, and took her
you to the path; salted the rest, that they had enough to come to
Rages, a city of the Medes. Then Tobias asked the angel and said to him: Brother Azarias,
I beg you to tell me that this remedy will serve parts of the fish, that thou
sent officers: And the angel answered and said unto him, If you put a little piece of you
your heart on a charcoal fire, your smoke blows away all sorts of demons,
both man and woman, so they do not make it to reach them.And the
gall is good to anoint your eyes that have some mists, and shall recover "
b) The teaching that the heart of a fish has the power to cast all sorts of
demons contradicts everything the Bible says about how to deal with the devil.
c) God would never send her an angel, to teach his servant, how to use the
methods of voodoo and witchcraft to cast out demons.
d) Satan can not be expelled by deceptive means of sorcery and witchcraft, and
in fact he has no interest in expelling demons (Matt. 12:26).
e) One of apostolic signs was the expulsion of demons, and the only things that had
was to use the name of Jesus (Mark 16:17, Acts 16:18)

An angel can not really be an angel, because angels are spiritual beings and this could be a spiritual but not a true angel, or it could be a kind of proof. In the Bible often only certain procedures are determined to make a test of faith

4. They teach that Alms and Good Works - wash away the sins and save the soul
a) 12.8 Tobias, 9 - "Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, alms giving is worth more than
to lay up treasures of gold: for alms delivers from death (eternal), and that is quenched
sins, and makes finding mercy and eternal life. "
Ecclesiasticus 3:33 - "Water extinguishes fire burning, and alms resisteth the sins"
b) This is the first school of Satan, the most terrible, and you are basically
all the heretical sects.
c) Salvation by works, destroys the value of vicarious work of Christ on behalf of
sinner. If charity and good deeds clean our sins, we do not need
blood of Christ. However, the Bible leaves no doubt about the unique value of
blood as a sole means of remission and forgiveness of sins:

Counterbalancing this thesis I present the biblical accounts themselves


Matthew 25 - 31 to 44 
When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory; 
And all nations will be gathered before him, and separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; 
And he shall set the sheep on his right and the goats on the left. 
Then the King will say to those on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; 
For I was hungry and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty and you gave me drink: I was a stranger and ye took me in; 
I was naked and you clothed me, sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 
Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and gave thee to eat? or thirsty and gave thee drink? 
When saw we thee a stranger and took thee in? or naked and clothe you? 
When saw we thee sick or in prison, and came unto thee? 
And the King shall answer, tell them, Verily I say unto you when you did it to one of these my brethren, you did for me. 
Then he will say to those on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels; 
For I was hungry and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink; 
Being a foreigner, did not take me, naked, and ye clothed me not, and sick and in prison ye visited me not. 
Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 
Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, when one of these little ones you did not, did not do it to me. 
And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into eternal life.
How about this?
I CORINTHIANS 13
If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, and have notcharity, I like metal and it sounds like the clanging bell. If I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and though I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor and surrender my body to be burned, but have not love, I gain nothing. Love suffereth long and is kind, love is not jealous, love does not trifle with, is not puffed up.
Do not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil, does not rejoice in iniquity, but rejoices with the truth, It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails, but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it will disappear, because in part we know, and we prophesy in part; But when that which is perfect, then what is partial will be done away. When I was child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, spoke as a child, but as soon as I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass darkly, but then face to face: now I know in part, but then shall I know even as I am known. Now abideth faith, hope and love, these three but the greatest of these is love.

Jesus shed his blood for us to have a chance, but without our efforts to improve will not be saved.

- Hebrews 9:11, 12, 22 - "But Christ ... by his own blood, entered once for all in
holy place, having obtained eternal redemption without the shedding of blood ...
there is no remission. "
- I Peter 1:18, 19 - "knowing that it was not with perishable things like silver or gold,
that you were ransomed from your futile way of life received by tradition from
your fathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb without blemish and without
stain, the blood of Christ, "
d) It contradicts the whole Bible. It states that only by God's grace and blood of
Christ, man can achieve complete justification and redemption:
- Romans 3:20, 24, 24 and 29 - "No one will be justified in his sight by works of
law .. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in
Christ Jesus. Whom God hath purposed in his blood ....Therefore we conclude that man is
justified by faith apart from works of law. "

This thesis goes against the bible itself.


James 2: 24 to 26

You see that man is justified by works and not by faith only. And, likewise, Rahab the harlot also was not justified by works when she received the messengers and sent them out another way? For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead.
5. Teach the forgiveness of sins through prayer.

a) Ecclesiastical 3.4 - "Whoever loves God beg the forgiveness of their sins, and if
refrain from making them to fall, and will be heard in prayer every day. "

b) The forgiveness of sins is not based on prayer that is made ​​by asking forgiveness,
prayer is not faith, but faith in Him who forgives sin, prayer itself is a
good work that no one can save. Only the prayer of confession and
repentance based on faith in the vicarious sacrifice of Christ brings forgiveness of sins (Prov. 28:13;
I John 1:9, I John 2:1,2)

When making a prayer for forgiveness it automatically goes through Jesus, because Jesus is the only way to parent.

6. Teach the Prayer for the Dead
a) 2 Maccabees 12:43-46 - "And having made ​​a collection, sent twelve thousand drachmas of silver
to Jerusalem to be offered in sacrifice for the sins of the dead, feeling
well and religiously the resurrection, (because if he did not expect that those who had
been killed, had one day to revive, would be a thing superfluous and vain to pray
for the dead), and because he considered that those who had died in godliness
was reserved for a very great mercy. It is therefore a holy and wholesome
thought to pray for the dead, to be free from their sins. "

Pray for the dead by sight was an accepted practice by the Jewish community.

b) It is false in this paper, a non-canonical book, which contradicts the whole Bible, the Roman Catholic Church bases its fault and heretical doctrine of purgatory.
c) This is again a Satanic school to divert the man's redemption solely by the blood of Christ, not by prayers to free souls from the fires of a place invented by the sick mind and the apostate Roman Catholic theologians.
d) After the death the fate of all men is sealed, some to eternal damnation and some to eternal salvation - there is no way to change one's fate after his death. Look at Matthew 7:13,13, Luke 16:26

This thesis goes against teoriado Good Shepherd. 
Look, do not despise one of these little ones because I tell you that their angels in heaven always see the face of my Father in heaven. 
For the Son of Man came to save what was lost. 
What do you think? If any man have an hundred sheep, I ma them be gone astray, will not the mountains, leaving the ninety and nine, in search of the stray? 
And, if indeed find it, verily I say unto you glad it is that of the ninety and nine which went not astray. 
So, too, is not the will of your Father in heaven that one of these little ones should perish. 
If it is not the Father's will that any of your creatures to perish, because they do not lose the will of God is sovereign.

7. Igher and the Existence of a place called Purgatory
a) This teaching is heretical and Satanic invented by the Roman Catholic Church, that man, even dying lost, may have a second chance for salvation.

b) Wisdom 3:1-4 - "The souls of the righteous are in God's hands, and no torment shall touch of death. It appeared to the eyes of the foolish who died, and his exit from this world was regarded as an affliction, and their separation us as a murder, but they are at peace (in heaven). And if they suffered torments before men, is their hope full of immortality. "

c) The Catholic Church bases the doctrine of purgatory in the last part of the text, which reads: "And if they sight of men they suffered torments, their hope is full of immortality."

- They teach that the misery in which the fair is, is purgatory to cleanse the
enter into immortality.
- This is a misrepresentation of the actual text of the apocryphal book. So, the church
Catholic is capable of any textual dishonesty, to keep his heresies.

John chapter 11 - 25 to 26
Jesus said to him: I am the resurrection and the life: he that believeth in me, though he die, shall live; 
And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Do you believe that?


- Because, make a lot of money on indulgences, and prayed for the Masses
dead.

The purpose of the Church by introducing the belief in hell is just that. Selling indulgences. This led to the revolt of Martin Luther started the Protestant movement. But nevertheless there in the spiritual place of torment and a place of solace as the parable of Lazarus says.

d) Read the following texts of Scripture which show the impossibility
Purgatory: I John 1:7, Heb 9:22, Luke 23.40-43; I6: 19-31, I Corinthians 15:55-58, I Thessalonians 4:12 -
17, Rev. 14:13, Ecclesiastes 12:7, Philippians 1:23, Psalm 49:7-8, II Timothy 2:11-13, Acts 10:43)
8. In the Apocrypha Angels Lie
a) Tobias 5.15-19 - "And the angel said unto him, and I will lead you back to thee. Tobias
said, I pray thee, tell me what family and tribe are you? The angel Raphael disselhe:
Find out about the family of the mercenary, mercenary or even go with your
son? But do not lay in that care, I am Azarias, the son of the great
Ananias. And Tobias said to him: Thou art of a distinguished family. But I ask that you not
offended that I want to know your generation.

b) An angel of God could not lie about their identity, without violating the law itself
God's holy. All the angels of God were true when asked
their identity. See Luke 1:19
9. All women who fast Days of Your Life
a) Judith 8:5,6 - "and the top floor of his house had made ​​for himself one quarter
removed, which was kept with her ​​maidens collected, and brought a scourge
on your kidneys, fasted all the days of his life, except on Saturdays, and in
new moons, feasts d the house of Israel "
b) This text has been used by legendary Roman connection with the canonization
of the "saints" of idolatry. Nowhere in the Bible to fast every day of life is
sign of holiness. Christ fasted 40 days and 40 nights and then fasted no more.
c) The book of Judith is clearly a human production, inspired by a legend
Devil to enslave men to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
10. Teach anti-Christian attitudes, as revenge, cruelty and selfishness
a) REVENGE - Judith 9:2
b) Cruelty and selfishness - Ecclesiastes 12:6
c) contradicts what the Bible says about:
- Vengeance (Rom. 12:19, 17)
- Cruelty and selfishness (Proverbs 25:21,22, Romans 12:20, John 6:5, Matthew 6:44-48)
The Catholic Church tries to defend the Immaculate Conception based on a
misrepresentation of the Apocrypha (Wisdom 8:9,20) - Contradicting: Lk. 1.30-35, Psalm 51:5;
Romans 3:23)

The Bible is full of reports of cruelty and barbarism that were the customs of the day,

Given all that we ask the Apocrypha be trusted? The answer
obviously is NOT.



Where does the early Church of the Acts of the Apostles and Roman Catholicism start?



When Rome became the world famous Empire, absorbed in your system the gods and the pagan religions of the various countries they ruled. Surely, Babylon was the source of paganism in these countries, which leads us to realize that the primitive religion of pagan Rome was no other than the Babylonian worship. Over the years, the leaders of the time began to give themselves the power of "masters of the people" of God instead of the message left by Christ. At the time of the Primitive Church, the true Christians were thrown to the lions. It was enough to refuse to follow the false teachings and punishment galloping. The Babylonian paganism reigned at the expense of human lives.



In the year 323 AD, Emperor Constantine professed conversion to Christianity.The imperial orders were scattered throughout the Empire: The persecution should cease! At this time, the Church began to receive great honors and worldly powers. Instead of being separated from the world, she became an active part of the political system that ruled. Thereafter, the mixture of paganism with Christianity grew, especially in Rome, giving rise to Roman Catholicism. The Council of Nicaea in Asia Minor, led by Constantine was composed of the Bishops who were appointed by the Emperor and others who were appointed by leaders of various religious communities. This council officially dedicated the name "Catholic" applied to the Church organized by Constantine: "I believe in the Church one, holy, catholic and apostolic." We might even say that Constantine was their first Pope. As can be seen clearly, the Catholic Church was not founded by Peter and is far from the early Church of the Apostles ...



In summary: On the influence of the emperors Constantine and Theodosius, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and into the diversion. Was institutionalized; came the religious professionalism; external practices were borrowed from paganism, were created rites and prayers, offices and officials. A whole theological structure was built to meet the absolutist pretensions of the priestly caste ruling that was binding on the faithful with the draconian statement: "Outside the Church there is no salvation."



In addition, Constantine wanted an empire united and strong, without dissent.To maintain its hold on men and establish a religious dictatorship, the Roman ecclesiastical authorities should maintain the ignorance of the Scriptures, and philosophies. The same Bible should be different. Should exalt God and the patriarchs, but also a mighty God, to oppose the Hebrew Jehovah himself, the Buddha, the powerful gods of Olympus. It was necessary to bring the Divinity Archaic Eastern fables mixed with the old stories of Moses, Elijah, Isaiah, etc., where they put Jesus, not as the Messiah or Christ, but maliciously placed paraphrased Jesus' divinity in the place of Jezeu Cristna, the archaic second person of the trinity of Hinduism.



In this context of ambitions and privileges, there was no place for a doctrine that exalts individual responsibility and teaches that our future depends on the commitment of the interior renovation and not the mere adherence and unconditionally submit to the dogmas of a Church which, for a perfect assimilation, it was necessary to admit the quintessence of theology: "Credo quia absurdum," ie, "I really believe that is absurd," created by Tertullian (155-220), Christian apologist.



All this was to be born a strong religion served as the Roman Empire. Came to be created even the symbolism of the Holy Family and All Saints, but the real truths of the New Testament canon and part of the Holy Scriptures should be removed or hidden, including the works of Socrates and other philosophies contrary to the interests of the Church was born.



This logic was adopted by the clerical forces in cahoots with the Roman policy, which needed this religion, strong enough to impose upon the conquered peoples and repressed by Rome, to ensure the invaded regions, which dominated the land, but not spirit of busy people. In return, Christianity gained Universality, because he wanted to become "The Imperial Roman Catholic Religion," to the Almighty, who happened to be sustained by force, while simulated divine grace, urging repentance and forgiveness, but in practice, defeated his enemies with the sword.



So it was not the tolerance preached by Christianity that he needed to, but a religion of authority, rigid, non evasive, long-range, with deep roots in the past and an uncompromising promise in the future, established by authority, land laws and customs.



To do this, Constantine had to adapt the Religion of Carpiteiro, giving them divine origins and thus more impressed the people who know that Jesus was God himself recognized as the new religion was born, there would be easy to impose its hierarchical structure, his regime imperial monarchy, and so their powers gain wide limits, almost unattainable.



When Constantine died in 337, was baptized and buried on the consideration that he had become a thirteenth Apostle, and iconography church came to be pictured as receiving the crown from the hands of God.






Books of the Old Testament

  • The Old Testament consists of 46 books: 39 and 7 protocanonicals known as known as deuterocanonical . The deuterocanonical books are only a Catholic Bible, were not included in the Protestant Bible or Tanakh Jewish.

Books protocanonicals


Pentateuch
Genesis - Exodus - Leviticus - Numbers - Deuteronomy
Historical


Poetic and Wisdom
Job - Psalms - Proverbs - Ecclesiastes (or Qoheleth) - Song of Songs of Solomon


Prophetic
Major Prophets
The name "Major" is not however the relevance of these historical characters in the history of Israel , but only the size of their books, are worse compared to the books of the Prophets "Minor".
Isaiah - Jeremiah - Lamentations of Jeremiah - Ezekiel - Daniel

Minor Prophets
As mentioned above, the name "Minor" is not the historical significance of these characters in the history of Israel , but only the size of their books.
Hosea - Joel - Amos - Obadiah - Jonah - Micah - Nahum - Habakkuk -Zephaniah - Haggai - Zechariah - Malachi


Deuterocanonical Texts

Historical
Tobit - Judith - Additions to Esther (Esther 10:4 to 16:24) - I Maccabees - II Maccabees .

Poetic and Wisdom
Wisdom - Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach).

Prophetic
Baruch - Additions to Daniel (Daniel 3:24-90, and Chapters 13 and 14).
According to the Protestant view, the deuterocanonical texts (called"Apocrypha" by Protestants) were allegedly written between Malachi and Matthew, the second at a time when the Jewish historian Josephus, the Divine Revelation had ceased because the succession of the prophets was nonexistent or imprecise. The opinion of Josephus is not accepted by Catholic Christians, Orthodox and some Protestants, and also think like a Jewish majority is not hypocritical, because Jesus says that lasted until John the Baptist, "The law and the prophets were until John" (cf. Luke 16:16 , Matthew 11:13 ).

In the period between the third century BC and first century is the DiasporaJewish Hellenistic, at a time when the Jews were already, in part, dispersed throughout the world. A Jewish colony stands out, it is located in Alexandria in Egypt, where he spoke much to the Greek language . The Bible was then translated from Hebrew into Greek. Some recent writings have been added without him that the Jews of Jerusalem recognize them as inspired.

Only in the late first century AD tried to fix the canon (= measure) Hebrew, so at a time when the differentiation between Judaism and Christianity was already well marked. And added the writings were not accepted in the Hebrew canon pharisaical, not before generating discussions that lasted for at least three or four centuries, not only discussions on the Deuterocanonical books , but also about books that are now recognized by them as canonical as Daniel, Esther , Song of Solomon, to name only these, noting that Jews Samaritans, has just as canonical the books of the Pentateuch.

When Jerome translated the Bible into Latin (the famous Vulgate ) at the beginning of the fourth century , included the Apocrypha and the canon was as early as the IA was the Catholic Church ratified them as inspired in the same way as other books. In the sixteenth century with the rise of the Protestant Reformation , is again thrown into doubt the canonicity of the Apocrypha by not being part of the Hebrew Bible Pharisaic.

In the Council of Trent , on April 8, 1546, in the Decretum of pounds sacris et traditionibus recipiendis (DH 1501), the Catholic Church reaffirms again after a few groups of Protestantism consider them apocryphal, on the otherProtestant considering that remained them as inspired, staying in the middle protestant this discussion until the early twentieth century, thus ceasing to be part of most Protestant Bibles, under most of the Bible Societies .

New Testament Books

  • The New Testament consists of 27 books.

Books protocanonicals


Gospels
Matthew - Mark - Luke - John .


Book of Acts
Acts of the Apostles (abbreviated "Acts").


Apostolic Letters

Doctrinal Treaties
I John .



Deuterocanonical Texts
Through the centuries, from the beginning of the Christian era, and even in contexts for the emergence of the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth century, the texts of the New Testament Apocrypha were discussed such as the texts of the Old Testament Apocrypha. Finally, the Protestant reformers decided to reject systematically all the texts of the Old Testament Apocrypha, systematically and accept all the texts of the New Testament Apocrypha.


Excerpts Evangelicals
Mark 16:9-20 - Luke 22:43-44 - John 5:3 '-4, 7:53 to 8:11, and all of Chapter 21.


Apostolic Letters
James - Peter II - II John - III John - Jude .


Doctrinal Treaties


Revelation
Revelation of John (abbreviated "Revelation").



ANSWERS TO OBJECTIONS ROMANIA

The apocryphal books of the Old Testament have received varying degrees of acceptance by Christians. Most Protestants and Jews who have accepted religious value and even history, without, however, canonical authority. Roman Catholics since the Council of Trent have accepted these books as canonical. More recently, the Roman Catholics have defended the idea of a deuterocanonical, but the apocryphal books are still used to support extra-biblical doctrines, and was proclaimed as the divinely inspired books of the Council of Trent. Other groups, such as Anglican and various Orthodox churches, harbor different conceptions about the Apocrypha. The following is a summary of the arguments that are usually put forward for the acceptance of these books in the belief that they hold some kind of canonicity and their rebuttals.

CATHOLIC objection: 

1. Allusions in the New Testament. The New Testament reflects the thinking and records some of the apocryphal events. For example, the book of Hebrews speaks of women who received their dead by resurrection (Hebrews 11:35), and references 2 Maccabees 7:12. The so-called Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha are also cited in its range by the New Testament (Jude 14.15, 2 Tim 3.8).

Rebuttal: This is an appeal to the fact that often the New Testament usually uses the translation of the LXX in quoting the Old Testament. Therefore, since the LXX contained the Apocrypha, surely the Apostles of the New Testament recognizes the authority of the entire LXX as then constituted. Moreover, they argue, is a fact that occasionally calls to work out of the "Palestinian Canon." Wildeboer 'and Torrey "collected all possible instances of such quotations or allusions to apocryphal works, including several which are only hypothetical. But this whole line of argument is really irrelevant to the issue at hand, and neither is alleged that any these sources is one of the Apocrypha from the Romans. In most cases the works were cited supposedly disappeared long ago - works such as the Apocalypse of Elijah and the Assumption of Moses (which left a fragment Latin). Only in one case, the quote from Enoch 1:9 in Jude 14-16, that the source is cited survived. There are quotes from pagan Greek authors, in the New Testament. In Acts 17:28, Paul quotes from Aratus, Phaenomena, line 5, in 1 Corinthians 15:33, cites Menander's comedy, Thais. Certainly no one could suppose that quotes such as these establish the canonicity or Arato or Menander. Rather, the testimony of the New Testament is very decisive against the canonicity of the Apocrypha fourteen. Further more, the claim that in many parts of the New Testament writings reflect influences of the Apocrypha, is indeed too fragile to be sustained, because if so, the book of Enoch quoted by Jude would be worthy of much more credit in order to canonicity of the Apocrypha Romans. Jude quoted verses of this whole book, while the Apocrypha in the Bible adopted Roman did not appear at all with quotes whole or in part. By the same token Catholics could then canonize him too!

Then we say that virtually all the books of the Old Testament are cited as being divinely authorized, or at least there is an allusion to them as such.

But it will be clear that the mere citation does not necessarily establish the canonicity, it is inconceivable that the various New Testament authors could have considered the fourteen canonical books of the Apocrypha Romans, without having made ​​use of them in quotes or allusions.

CATHOLIC objection: 

2. Employment in the New Testament is the Septuagint version.The Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, in Alexandria, is known as the Septuagint (LXX). It was the version used by Jesus and is the most cited authors of the New Testament and the early Christians. The LXX contained the Apocrypha. The presence of these books in the LXX supports the Alexandrian canon, broader Old Testament, in opposition to the Palestinian canon, that omits lower.

Rebuttal: But it is by no means certain that all the books were considered canonical in the LXX, even by the Jews of Alexandria.Well that is decisive against the evidence of Philo of Alexandria (who lived in the first century AD) as well as official Judaism in other places and times. Although he frequently quoted the canonical books of the "Palestinian canon" does not even quote the Apocrypha. It is impossible to reconcile with the theory of an "Alexandrian Canon" greater, unless perhaps some Jews of Alexandria had not received this "Alexandrian Canon" while others recognized. Secondly, it is reported from reliable sources that the Greek version of Aquila was accepted by the Alexandrian Jews in the second century AD, although it does not contain the Apocrypha. A reasonable deduction from this evidence is that (as Jerome himself explained) the Jews of Alexandria decided to include in his edition of the Old Testament books that recognized both as canonical, but the books were "church" i, is. Were recognized as valuable and helpful, but not be infallible.

Additional support for this assumption (which subcanônicos books may have been preserved and used in conjunction with canonical) was recently discovered in the findings of Qumran Cave 4. There, in the heart of Palestine, where certainly the "Palestinian Canon" authoritative must have been at least two books represent themselves Apocrypha - Ecclesiasticus and Tobit. Tobias appears a fragment of a piece of papyrus, the other in leather, there is also a fragment in Hebrew, written on leather. Several fragments of Ecclesiasticus were discovered there, and at least in small quantity represented, and agree exactly with the ecclesiastical mss of the eleventh century, discovered in the Geniza of Cairo in the 1890s.

In this regard, the Fourth of Qumran Cave has retained pseudepigraphic works such as the Testament of Levi in Aramaic, the same in Hebrew, and the book of Enoch (ten fragments mss.diferentes!). Certainly, no one could seriously argue that the Qumran sectarians considered as narrow as canonical all these apocryphal works and pseudepigrapha only because they kept copies of them. Palestine is that it was the home of the Jewish canon, never to Alexandria, Egypt. The great Greek center of learning in Egypt belonged, had no authority to determine precisely which books belonged to the Jewish Old Testament. Alexandria
was the place of translation only, not sainthood. The fact that the Septuagint contain the apocryphal only proves that the Alexandrian Jews translated the other Jewish religious books of the intertestamental period alongside the canonical books.

CATHOLIC objection: 

3. The oldest complete manuscripts of the Bible. The earliest Greek manuscripts of the Bible contains the Apocrypha inserted between the books of the Old Testament. The manuscripts Aleph (N), A and B, these include books, revealing that were part of the original Christian Bible.

Rebuttal: But this is only partially true. Certainly the Targums
Aramaic did not recognize. Not even the Syriac Pesita in its earliest form contained a single apocryphal book, it was only later that some of them were added. A careful investigation of this claim reduces the authority of the Apocrypha which are founded only an older version, the Septuagint, and those later translations (such as Italy, the Coptic, the Ethiopic, Syriac and later) have been derived. Even in the case of the Septuagint, the Apocrypha maintain an existence somewhat uncertain. The Codex Vaticanus ("B") is 1 and 2 Maccabees (canonical second Rome), but includes 1 Esdras (nãocanônico second Rome). The Codex Sinaiticus ("Alef") omits Baruch (canonical second Rome), but includes 4 Maccabees (non-canonical second Rome). The Codex Alexandrinus ("A") contains three apocryphal books "noncanonical" Ezra 1 and 3 and 4 Maccabees. So what happens to the three oldest mss. LXX show considerable lack of certainty about the books that make up the list of the Apocrypha, and the fourteen acceptable to the Roman Church are not in any way substantiated by the testimony of the great uncials of the fourth and fifth centuries. The New Testament writers often quote the LXX did, but never even mentioned a book from the Apocrypha.At most, the presence of apocryphal Christian Bibles in the fourth century shows that these books were accepted to some extent by some Christians at that time. This does not mean that Jews or Christians as a whole to accept these books as canonical, not to mention the universal church, which never had the relationship of canonical books.

CATHOLIC objection: 


4. The early Christian art. Some of the earliest records of Christian art reflects the use of the Apocrypha. The representations in the catacombs are sometimes based on the recorded history of the faithful in the intertestamental period.

Rebuttal: The artistic representations do not constitute a basis for determining the canonicity of the Apocrypha. The painted representations in the catacombs, drawn from apocryphal books, show that only the believers of that era were aware of the events of the inter-testamentary period and considered part of their religious heritage. The early Christian art does not decide or resolve the question of canonicity of the Apocrypha.

CATHOLIC objection: 
5. The early church fathers. Some of the earliest church fathers, especially those in the West, accepted and used the apocryphal books in their teaching and preaching. And even in the East, Clement of Alexandria recognized as entirely canonical Ezra 2.Origen added Maccabees and the Epistle of Jeremiah to the list of canonical books of the Bible.

Rebuttal: Many of the great fathers of the church in its beginning, of which Melito (190), Origen (253), Eusebius of Caesarea (339), Hilary of Poitiers (366), Athanasius (373 AD) Cyril of Jerusalem (386 AD ), Gregory Nazianzen (390), Rufino (410), Jerome (420), testified against the Apocrypha. None of the first parents of scale of the early Church before Augustine, accepted all the apocryphal books canonized in Trento. Then it will be more correct to say that some of the early Christian writers seem to do this.

CATHOLIC objection: 
6. The influence of Augustine. Augustine (c. 354-430) raised the Western tradition more open about the apocryphal books, in its heyday, to give them canonical category. It influenced the councils of the church in Hippo (393 AD) and Carthage (397 AD), who related the Apocrypha as canonical. Since then, the Western Church began to use the Apocrypha in their public worship.

Rebuttal: The testimony of Augustine is not definitive, nor free of mistakes. First, Augustine is sometimes assumed that only had an apocryphal deuterocanonical (City of God, 18.36) and not absolute canonicity. In addition, the Councils of Hippo and Carthage were small local councils, influenced by Augustine and the tradition of the Greek Septuagint. No Hebrew scholar has described this in either of these two councils. The Hebrew more qualified expert of the season, Jerome, Augustine argued strongly against rejecting the canocidade the apocrypha. Jerome came to refuse to translate the Apocrypha into Latin, or even include them in their versions in Vulgar Latin (Latin Vugata). Only after the death of Jerome and practically over his corpse, is that the apocryphal books were incorporeal the Latin Vulgate.Moreover, when an antagonist
appealed to a passage in 2 Maccabees to end an argument, Augustine replied that his case was very weak if he had to resort to a book that was not the same category as those that were received and accepted by the Jews. This ambiguous defense of the Apocrypha, the part of Augustine, is more than counterbalanced by the contrary position adopted by Athanasius (died 365), so revered and highly esteemed both by East and West as the champion of Trinitarian orthodoxy. At its Thirty-Ninth Letter, paragraph 4, wrote: "There is therefore the Old Testament twenty-two books," and then lists the books that are those who are in MT (Masoretic Text), about the same order in which they appear in the Protestant Bible. In paragraphs 6 and 7 states that the extra-biblical books (Lê., fourteen of the Apocrypha) are not included in the Canon, but merely are "appointed to be read." Despite this, the Eastern Church later showed a tendency to agree with the Western Church to accept the
Apocrypha (Trulano the Second Council at Constantinople in 692).Still, there were many people who had reservations about some of the fourteen, and finally in Jerusalem in 1672, the Greek Church reduced the number of the four canonical Apocrypha, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit and Judith.

CATHOLIC objection:
7. The Council of Trent. In 1546, the council of the Roman Catholic post-Reformation, held in Trento, proclaimed the Apocrypha as canonical, stating: The synod [...] [...] receives and venerates all the books of the Old Testament and New [including the Apocrypha] - an understanding that only God is the author of both testaments [...] as if they had been dictated by the mouth of Christ himself, or the Holy Spirit if someone [...] not to receive these books as sacred and canonical, in all its parts as they have been used and read in the Catholic Church [...] be anathema. Since the Council of Trent, the apocryphal books were considered canonical, spiritual authority to holders of the Roman Catholic Church.

Rebuttal: The action of the Council of Trent was both controversial and damaging. In discussions with Luther, the Roman Catholics had quoted Maccabees, in support of prayer for the modes (see 2Maccabees 12.45,46). Luther and the Protestants that followed challenged the canonicity of the book, quoting the New Testament, early church fathers and Jewish teachers in support. The Council of Trent responded to Luther canonizing the Apocrypha. The action of the council was not only patently controversy, was also detrimental, since neither the fourteen apocryphal books were accepted by the Council. First and Second Esdras (Ezra 3:04 Roman Catholics, the Catholic version of Douai called 2Esdras and 1, respectively, the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah) and the Prayer of Manasseh were rejected. The rejection of 2Esdras is particularly suspect, because it contains a verse very strong against the prayer for the dead (2Esdras 7105). Indeed, some medieval scribe had cut this section of the Latinos 2Esdras manuscripts, and is known by
Arabic manuscripts, to be rediscovered again in Latin by Robert L. Bentley, in 1874, a library of Amiens, France. 
CATHOLICS AGAINST Apocrypha?

This decision, in Trento, did not reflect a universal consent, the undisputed, within the Catholic Church. Catholics were not unanimous about the divine inspiration in these books. Lorraine Boetner (in Roman Catholicism) cites the following: "Pope Gregory the Great declared the first Maccabees, an apocryphal book, is not canonical. At this exact time (Reform) Cardinal Cajetan, who opposed Luther at Augsburg in 1518, post comments on all reliable historical books of the Old Testament in 1532, omitting the Apocrypha. Even before this fact, Cardinal Ximenes had made ​​a distinction between the Apocrypha and the canon of the Old Testament, in his work with Polyglot plutense ( 1514-1517), who incidentally was approved by Pope Leo X. Do these popes were wrong? If they were right, the decision of the Council of Trent was wrong. If they were wrong, where is the infallibility of the Pope as master of doctrine '. Bearing in mind this conception, the Protestants generally rejected the decision of the Council of Trent, which had no solid foundation.

CATHOLIC objection: 

8. Use non-Catholic. The Protestants since the Reformation Bibles often contain the Apocrypha. In truth, in Anglican churches the Apocrypha are read regularly in public worship, along with the books of the Old and New Testaments. The Apocrypha are also used by the churches of the Eastern Orthodox tradition.

Rebuttal: The use of the apocryphal books of the Orthodox churches, Anglicans and Protestants has been uneven and differentiated. Some wear them in public worship. Many Bible translations contain the Apocrypha, though placed in a separate section, usually between the Old and New Testaments. Even non-Catholics to make use of the Apocrypha, never gave them the same canonical authority of the rest of the Bible. Non-Catholics use the Apocrypha in their devotions, rather than on doctrinal statement.



CATHOLIC objection: 

9. The Dead Sea community. The apocryphal books were found among the scrolls of the Dead Sea community at Qumran. Some were written in Hebrew, which would be evidence of having been used by Palestinian Jews before the time of Jesus.

Rebuttal: Many non-canonical books were discovered at Qumran, among which comments and manuals. It was a library containing many books not considered inspired by the community. Since the library is not found at Qumran comments or quotes allowed on the Apocrypha, there is no evidence that were considered inspired. We assume, therefore, that the Christian community did not consider the Apocrypha as canonical. Even if they found evidence to the contrary, the fact that this group is a sect of Judaism that separates official prove to be natural that all was not orthodox in their beliefs. As far as we can distinguish, however, this group was the Orthodox Old Testament canon. In other words, did not accept the canonicity of the apocryphal books.

Summary and Conclusion

Summarizing all these arguments, this position argues that the widespread use of the apocryphal books by Christians since the earliest times, is evidence of its acceptance by the people of God. This long tradition culminated in the official recognition of these books, the Council of Trent, as if inspired by God.

Even non-Catholics, to date, give an apocryphal books paracanônicos category, which is deducible from the place that gives them their Bibles and their churches.
The Old Testament canon until the time of Nehemiah comprised 22 (or 24) books in Hebrew, which, in the Christian Bible, would be 39, as already verified by the fourth century BC The minor objections from that time did not changed the content of the canon. Were called apocryphal books written after this time, which had wide circulation among Christians, because of the influence of the Greek translation of Alexandria. Since some of the early church fathers, especially in the West, these books mentioned in his writings, the church (largely influenced by Augustine) gave them wider use and ecclesiastical. However, until the time of the Reformation these books were not considered canonical. The canonization who received the Council of Trent did not receive the support of history. The decision of this Council was fraught with controversy and prejudice, as has been demonstrated. That the apocryphal books, whatever value they have devotional or ecclesiastical, are not canonical, it was proven by the following facts:

1. The Jewish community never accepted as canonical.

2. Were not accepted by Jesus, nor the New Testament authors.

3. Most of the first major church fathers rejected its canonicity.

4. No church council considered the canonical until the late fourth century.

5. Jerome, the great biblical scholar and translator of the Vulgate, strongly rejected the Apocrypha.

6. Many Roman Catholic scholars, even during the Reformation, rejected the Apocrypha.

7. No Greek Orthodox Church, Anglican or Protestant, to date, recognized the Apocrypha as inspired and canonical, in the fullest sense of those words.
Given these important events, it becomes absolutely necessary for Christians today would never use the Apocrypha as if it were the Word of God, nor allowed to cite in support of any Christian doctrine. Indeed, when examined according to the strict criteria of canonicity established, we find that the apocryphal books lack the following:

1. The Apocrypha does not claim to be prophetic.

2. Does not have the authority of God. The prologue to the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus (180 BC) says: "Many and great teachings handed down by Law, the Prophets, and other writers who came after them, which makes Israel be praised for his teaching and his wisdom, as not only the authors of these speeches had to be instructed, the foreigners themselves also can be taken (by them) very much able to speak and to write. So, Jesus, my grandfather, after he applied with great care to read Law, the prophets and other books that our parents gave us, I also wanted to write something about the doctrine and wisdom ... I urge you therefore to do with benevolence, and to undertake this reading with a particular attention and forgive us , it sometimes seems, when playing this portrait of sovereignty, we are unable to give the sense (of course) the expressions. " This prologue is a self-recognition of human fallibility.

3. Contain historical errors (see 1:3-5 Tobias and 14.11) and serious heresies such as prayer for the dead (2Maccabees 12.45,46, 4).

4. Although its content has some value to the building in devotionals, mostly it comes to repetitive text, are texts that are already in the canonical books.

5. There is a clear absence of prophecy, which does not occur in the canonical books.

6. The apocryphal add nothing to our knowledge of messianic truths.

7. The people of God, whom the Apocrypha would have been originally presented,
flatly rejected them. The Jewish community has never changed his mind about the Apocrypha. Some Christians have been less rigid and categorical, but whatever the value attributed to them, it is evident that the church as a whole never accepted the Apocrypha as Scripture.

"This is definitely the reason why we reject the Apocrypha"
* This study was the result of research in several books, encyclopedias, handbooks, lexicons, dictionaries and the internet. Compiled and adapted by the editorial team of the CACP

1. Trustworthiness of the Old Testament?, Gleason L. Archer. Ed Jr. New Life.

2. Introduction Bible, Norman Geisler and William Nix. Life Ed.

3. Panorama of the Old Testament, Angelo Gagliardi Jr. Ed Come.

4. The New Bible Commentary Vol I, several authors. New Life Ed.

5. Evidence That Demands a Verdict, vol I, Josh McDowell. Ed Candela.

6. The Facts on "Roman Catholicism", John Ankerberg and John Weldon. Ed
Midnight Call.

7. Roman Catholicism, Adolfo Robleto. Ed Juerp.

8. Particular studies, Pastor Joseph Laérton - IBR Emanuel - (085) 292-6204. (Internet)

9. Studies private, RB Paul Anglada. (Internet)
10. Systematic Theology, Green. New Life Ed.
11. Private notes of the author. Presby. Paul Cristiano


Author's comments:


There is obvious interest in history, in the introduction or removal of certain precepts of doctrine according to personal interests of the dominant power.One of the most tamper evident, is referred to the pre-existence of the soul, thesis defended by Origen. Within this framework any biblical text that makes reference to this was to be disregarded. Although it failed to erase all tracks, and so we find several quotes that support the thesis of Origen. In this context, consider apocryphal books that are unwanted citations to these references is normal. The introduction also written as the famous letter to the Hebrews, could not be authentic enough not to arouse suspicion. Besides which authority has the Catholic Church and its bishops in successive councils, many of which are driven by powerful rulers and pagans, who abducted the bishops to the sword, to decide what will be part of God's word and what does not be?Thus it is natural to seek to know the apocryphal texts to see what they say, not that we telos as authentic. There are apocryphal texts which contains certain statements that we can not accept a clash with the message preached by Jesus. I cite for example the Gospels that describe Jesus' childhood. In them there is a reference to a procedure of Jesus as a boy, which produced death to those who contradicted. This clashes with common sense as Jesus in his infinite mercy has not cursed even the Roman soldiers who crucified him and stabbed a spear into his body, but prayed to His Father to forgive them for they knew not what they did. So Jesus was of the utmost kindness and gentleness, and such behavior collides with the same mission of Jesus. Caveat is that Jesus boy could not yet reached the maturity of its mission. The fact is that we already had the powers that characterized, for his was the first miracle of turning water into wine, was asked by his mother Mary knew that such powers, and Jesus rebuked him saying he had not yet reached their hours, but ends up agreeing to perform the miracle, which is to show that Jesus had a child she used her powers and that was the knowledge of your circle of family and neighbors.


However there are many among the Apocrypha knowledge is very important to add value to Christian knowledge. Such knowledge that has been usurped and denied to scholars of the doctrine of the Master Jesus. They are very relevant and important information, and to me it matters little whether they agree with the judge that some sacred canons, because they do not consider them fully authentic, since they deny doctrinal knowledge to me as they were fundamental to the early Christians, but they fully and authentically Christian, and they had no hand in the Bible as we have today. I myself would like to make my own assessments of what is authentic or not, but always reading and studying with the necessary qualifications, and enjoying what is right and good.


In future studies we determined the Apocrypha that bring valuable and precious teachings.

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